This article reviews the considerations that inform ethical psychotropic medication prescription processes at the clinical level with child and adolescent patients and their families or guardians. Physician attributes, cultural and religious factors, and the psychodynamic aspects of psychopharmacology are reviewed, in addition to the applications of basic ethical principles and concepts to the act of dispensing psychotropic medications. Attention is given to the processes of informed consent, assent, and challenges encountered to ethical prescribing for special populations such as children in foster care and juvenile justice systems. Ramifications of black box warnings and off label prescribing are discussed. Finally, the authors offer practical tips to guide clinicians in ethical psychopharmacologic management of their child and adolescent patients.
"'Off-label' use has now been recognized as a particular problem for drug safety [5,6]. The rate of 'off-label' use is especially high in pre-school children and less so in adolescents, but rates are generally high in comparison with adults [7,8]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research in psychopharmacology for children and adolescents is fraught with ethical problems and tensions. This has practical
consequences as it leads to a paucity of the research that is essential to support the treatment of this vulnerable group.
In this article, we will discuss some of the ethical issues which are relevant to such research, and explore their implications
for both research and standard care. We suggest that finding a way forward requires a willingness to acknowledge and discuss
the inherent conflicts between the ethical principles involved. Furthermore, in order to facilitate more, ethically sound
psychopharmacology research in children and adolescents, we suggest more ethical analysis, empirical ethics research and ethics
input built into psychopharmacological research design.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 12/2008; 2(1):1-14. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-2-39
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This tutorial addresses the following questions:¿ why do formal verification?¿ who is doing it today?¿ what are they doing?¿ how are they doing it?¿ what about the future?
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