The dimerization domain of HIV-1 viral infectivity factor Vif is required to block virion incorporation of APOBEC3G

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Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.19). 02/2007; 4(1):81. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-4-81
Source: PubMed


The HIV-1 accessory protein known as viral infectivity factor or Vif binds to the host defence factor human APOBEC3G (hA3G) and prevents its assembly with viral particles and mediates its elimination through ubiquitination and degradation by the proteosomal pathway. In the absence of Vif, hA3G becomes incorporated within viral particles. During the post entry phase of infection, hA3G attenuates viral replication by binding to the viral RNA genome and deaminating deoxycytidines to form deoxyuridines within single stranded DNA regions of the replicated viral genome. Vif dimerization has been reported to be essential for viral infectivity but the mechanistic requirement for Vif multimerization is unknown.
We demonstrate that a peptide antagonist of Vif dimerization fused to the cell transduction domain of HIV TAT suppresses live HIV-1 infectivity. We show rapid cellular uptake of the peptide and cytoplasmic distribution. Robust suppression of viral infectivity was dependent on the expression of Vif and hA3G. Disruption of Vif multimerization resulted in the production of virions with markedly increased hA3G content and reduced infectivity.
The role of Vif multimerization in viral infectivity of nonpermissive cells has been validated with an antagonist of Vif dimerization. An important part of the mechanism for this antiretroviral effect is that blocking Vif dimerization enables hA3G incorporation within virions. We propose that Vif multimers are required to interact with hA3G to exclude it from viral particles during their assembly. Blocking Vif dimerization is an effective means of sustaining hA3G antiretroviral activity in HIV-1 infected cells. Vif dimerization is therefore a validated target for therapeutic HIV-1/AIDS drug development.

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Available from: Vladimir Presnyak, Aug 06, 2014
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    • "The Cullin-box contains the 161PPLP164 motif that interacts with Cul5 and C-terminal region of EloB [23], [25]. The PPLP motif is also involved in Vif multimerization and could be important for HIV-1 infectivity [26]–[28]. The second domain is referred as HCCH, which is located downstream of the BC-box, and corresponds to the residues 100–142 [2], [29], [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The virion infectivity factor (Vif) is an accessory protein, which is essential for HIV replication in host cells. Vif neutralizes the antiviral host protein APOBEC3 through recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Fifty thousand Vif models were generated using the ab initio relax protocol of the Rosetta algorithm from sets of three- and nine-residue fragments using the fragment Monte Carlo insertion-simulated annealing strategy, which favors protein-like features, followed by an all-atom refinement. In the protocol, a constraints archive was used to define the spatial relationship between the side chains from Cys/His residues and zinc ions that formed the zinc-finger motif that is essential for Vif function. We also performed centroids analysis and structural analysis with respect to the formation of the zinc-finger, and the residue disposal in the protein binding domains. Additionally, molecular docking was used to explore details of Vif-A3G and Vif-EloBC interactions. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation was used to evaluate the stability of the complexes Vif-EloBC-A3G and Vif-EloC. The zinc in the HCCH domain significantly alters the folding of Vif and changes the structural dynamics of the HCCH region. Ab initio modeling indicated that the Vif zinc-finger possibly displays tetrahedral geometry as suggested by Mehle et al. (2006). Our model also showed that the residues L146 and L149 of the BC-box motif bind to EloC by hydrophobic interactions, and the residue P162 of the PPLP motif is important to EloB binding. The model presented here is the first complete three-dimensional structure of the Vif. The interaction of Vif with the A3G protein and the EloBC complex is in agreement with empirical data that is currently available in the literature and could therefore provide valuable structural information for advances in rational drug design.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89116. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089116 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Advances in the study of PPI in the last 10 years have opened up promising new lines of research in the field of therapeutics.26,46–48 One specific type of PPI, the formation of dimers, has been identified as a drug target in almost all HIV proteins.49–55 Our laboratory had previously shown that a pair of BiFC plasmids for Vpr produce Vpr dimers that restore the fluorescent molecule when cotransfected.39 "
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting protein-protein interactions (PPI) is an emerging field in drug discovery. Dimerization and PPI are essential properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 proteins, their mediated functions, and virus biology. Additionally, dimerization is required for the functional interaction of HIV-1 proteins with many host cellular components. In this study, a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC)-based screening assay was developed that can quantify changes in dimerization, using HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) dimerization as a "proof of concept." Results demonstrated that Venus Vpr (generated by BiFC Vpr constructs) could be competed off in a dose-dependent manner using untagged, full-length Vpr as a competitor molecule. The change in signal intensity was measured quantitatively through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in a high content screening assay. High content imaging was used to screen a library of small molecules for an effect on Vpr dimerization. Among the tested molecules, a few of the small molecules demonstrate an effect on Vpr dimerization in a dose-dependent manner.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 05/2013; 7:403-12. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S44139 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, the known protein-binding domains in Vif, including the EloB/C binding BC-box, the cullin box containing the PPLP motif, are not essential for the Vif-CBFβ interaction. Vif forms homo-oligomers, and the PPLP motif has been suggested to be required for oligomerization [63], [70], [87], [88], [89], [90]. Since Vif140 still forms oligomers with CBFβ140, CBFβ182, and CBFβ187, our results suggest that regions in Vif in addition to PPLP may also participate in Vif oligomerization. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for viral replication because of its ability to eliminate the host's antiviral response to HIV-1 that is mediated by the APOBEC3 family of cellular cytidine deaminases. Vif targets these proteins, including APOBEC3G, for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation via the formation of a Cullin5-ElonginB/C-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Determining how the cellular components of this E3 ligase complex interact with Vif is critical to the intelligent design of new antiviral drugs. However, structural studies of Vif, both alone and in complex with cellular partners, have been hampered by an inability to express soluble full-length Vif protein. Here we demonstrate that a newly identified host regulator of Vif, core-binding factor-beta (CBFβ), interacts directly with Vif, including various isoforms and a truncated form of this regulator. In addition, carboxyl-terminal truncations of Vif lacking the BC-box and cullin box motifs were sufficient for CBFβ interaction. Furthermore, association of Vif with CBFβ, alone or in combination with Elongin B/C (EloB/C), greatly increased the solubility of full-length Vif. Finally, a stable complex containing Vif-CBFβ-EloB/C was purified in large quantity and shown to bind purified Cullin5 (Cul5). This efficient strategy for purifying Vif-Cul5-CBFβ-EloB/C complexes will facilitate future structural and biochemical studies of Vif function and may provide the basis for useful screening approaches for identifying novel anti-HIV drug candidates.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33495. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033495 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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