Microbial Metabolism of Reduced Phosphorus Compounds

Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Chico, California 95928-0515, USA.
Annual Review of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 12.18). 02/2007; 61(1):379-400. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093357
Source: PubMed


The field of bacterial phosphorus (P) metabolism has undergone a significant transformation in the past decade owing to the elucidation of widespread and diverse pathways for the metabolism of reduced P compounds. The characterization of these pathways dramatically changes the current and narrow view of P metabolism and our understanding of the forms in which P is produced and available in the environment. In this review, recent investigations into the biochemical pathways and molecular genetics of reduced P metabolism in bacteria are discussed. Particular attention is paid to recently elucidated metabolic reactions and the genetic characterization of biosynthesis of organic reduced P compounds and to the pathways for oxidation of the inorganic reduced P compounds hypophosphite and phosphite.

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    • "The potential P-bearing compounds available in Lake Matano include orthophosphate, organophosphates or phosphonates, or mineral-associated phosphate. In fact, in oligotrophic systems, organophosphates and phosphonates may be the most common P sources (Smith and Prairie, 2004; White and Metcalf, 2007). The algae, fish, invertebrates, and microbes present in the lake are potential sources of organic phosphate esters, which are common in lipids and ubiquitous in nucleic acids. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotrophic Proteo- and Actinobacteria were isolated from Lake Matano, Indonesia, a stratified, ferruginous (iron-rich), ultra-oligotrophic lake with phosphate concentrations below 50 nM. Here, we describe the growth of eight strains of heterotrophic bacteria on a variety of soluble and insoluble sources of phosphorus. When transferred to medium without added phosphorus (P), the isolates grow slowly, their RNA content falls to as low as 1% of cellular dry weight, and 86-100% of the membrane lipids are replaced with amino- or glycolipids. Similar changes in lipid composition have been observed in marine photoautotrophs and soil heterotrophs, and similar flexibility in phosphorus sources has been demonstrated in marine and soil-dwelling heterotrophs. Our results demonstrate that heterotrophs isolated from this unusual environment alter their macromolecular composition, which allows the organisms to grow efficiently even in their extremely phosphorus-limited environment.
    Environmental Microbiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.13063 · 6.20 Impact Factor
    • "75%) and phosphonates (c. 25%) (White and Metcalf, 2007; Karl et al., 2008; Dyhrman et al., 2009; White et al., 2010), both of which are available to Trichodesmium via alkaline phosphatases (PhoA and PhoX) (Stihl et al., 2001; Orchard et al., 2009) and a carbon-phosphorus lyase (Dyhrman et al., 2006; Beversdorf et al., 2010) respectively. Genes for the utilization of the reduced inorganic phosphorus compound phosphite (PO 3 3− ) are common in nature (Stone and White, 2012), being present in the "
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    ABSTRACT: Species belonging to the filamentous cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium are responsible for a significant fraction of oceanic nitrogen fixation. The availability of phosphorous (P) likely constrains the growth of Trichodesmium in certain regions of the ocean. Moreover, Trichodesmium species have recently been shown to play a role in an emerging oceanic phosphorus (P) redox cycle, further highlighting the key role these microbes play in many biogeochemical processes in the contemporary ocean. Here we show that Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 can grow on the reduced inorganic compound phosphite as its sole source of P. The components responsible for phosphite utilisation are identified through heterologous expression of the T. erythraeum IMS101 Tery_0365-0368 genes, encoding a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter and NAD-dependent dehydrogenase, in the model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We demonstrate that only combined expression of both the transporter and the dehydrogenase enables Synechocystis to utilise phosphite, confirming the function of Tery_0365-0367 as a phosphite uptake system (PtxABC) and Tery_0368 as a phosphite dehydrogenase (PtxD). Our findings suggest that reported uptake of phosphite by Trichodesmium consortia in the field likely reflects an active biological process by Trichodesmium. These results highlight the diversity of phosphorus sources available to Trichodesmium in a resource-limited ocean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12308 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Phosphite is more soluble than phosphate, which gives it greater mobility in aquatic environments [14]. Moreover, as a reduced form with relative thermodynamic instability [14], phosphite can be oxidized to phosphate or reduced to gaseous phosphine (PH 3 , À3) [8] [13] [15] [16]. As reduction from phosphate is energetically unfeasible, unless phosphite or 1385-8947/Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphite is an important intermediate of the phosphorus cycle. Its life in environment is related to its oxidation rate. This paper investigated the photooxidation of phosphite in aqueous solution in the presence of ferric and oxalate ions under a Xe lamp. The photooxidation of phosphite followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The kinetics constant of 100 μmol L -1 phosphite was 0.0039 min-1 at pH 3 and Fe(III)/Ox 10.0/100.0 μmol L-1. The photooxidation was dependent upon the pH values, phosphite/ferric/oxalate concentration, and light intensity. The decrease of phosphite coincided with the increase of phosphate. The addition of 2-proponal, NaN3 or furfuryl alcohol inhibited the photooxidation of phosphite, which indicated that the yielded reactive oxygen species played an important role in the oxidation of phosphite. The results contribute not only to predict the longevity of phosphite in the aqueous solutions, but also to understand the transfer of phosphite in P cycle.
    The Chemical Engineering Journal 02/2015; 269. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2015.01.113 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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