Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Clinical Psychology Review (Impact Factor: 7.18). 05/2008; 28(4):692-708. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have conflicts with adults and peers, and suffer from unpopularity, rejection by peers, and a lack of friendships, in part as a consequence of their ADHD symptoms. Comorbid oppositional defiant or conduct disorder aggravates these impairments. In some cases the inadequate social behavior of children with ADHD may be phenomenologically and etiologically related to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, the causes and consequences of PDD symptoms in ADHD are understudied. Also, the relative contributions of ADHD, on the one hand, and comorbid disorders, on the other, to the course of social impairments are unknown. Social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD appears to increase their risk of later psychopathology other than ADHD. Thus far effective treatment for social dysfunctioning is lacking. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD, and focus on development of effective treatment strategies.

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    • "Individuals with ADHD often experience forgetfulness, difficulty planning, restlessness, and mood instability (Ambrosini, Bennett, & Elia, 2013; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). ADHD negatively affects children and adults in their functioning in several fields, such as in friendships (Hoza, 2007; Nijmeijer et al., 2008), relationships (Eakin et al., 2004), education (LeFever, Villers, Morrow, & Vaughn, 2002), and work (Halmøy, Fasmer, Gillberg, & Haavik, 2009). For a long time, ADHD has been viewed as a child disorder, but in the last decades, research has shown that the disorder persists into adulthood (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman, & Rohde, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Results: Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. Conclusion: ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715610001 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    • "arental reflective functioning . Parental reflective functioning is the parents ' capacity to reflect upon their own and their child ' s internal mental experience . It is necessary for the development of cognitive abilities in the child and for promoting affect regulation and productive social relationships , which are impaired in ADHD children ( Nijmeijer et al . , 2008 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by a chronic, pervasive, and developmentally inappropriate level of impulsivity, attention and concentration. It is associated with adverse academic and social functions and stress to families. Studies provide evidence that family variables are correlated with this disorder and that parenting styles play an important role in its complexity. However, a thorough investigation of the impact of parental affective and relational aspects on the ADHD child’s areas of functioning is still needed. We suggest investigating parenting characteristics to a greater extent by adopting an attachment perspective with a focus on parental reflective functioning as it pertains to the child’s ADHD clinical condition. In future research, parents’ attachment and the parental reflective functioning should be taken into account.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "• Symptoms of inattention and somatic problems significantly predicted lower academic performance. • Consequently, children exhibiting ADHD symptoms, especially inattention, can be considered population at risk for academic impairment [6] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children exhibiting ADHD symptoms have been shown to be at high risk of academic failure, grade repetition and poor academic achievement. Few research studies have addressed the problem of assessing the incidence of ADHD symptoms in Transylvanian children. In this study, besides the prevalence of ADHD symptoms: inattention and hyperactivity, emotional and behavioral problems were assessed among elementary school students without formal diagnosis of ADHD. Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF) for 68 children with ages between 7-10 years. Based on teachers’ ratings, results show that children exhibiting symptoms of ADHD, have also academic impairments, poor school outcomes. Psychoeducational implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    SGEM International Multidisciplinary Conferences on SOCIAL SCIENCES AND ARTS, Albena, Bulgaria; 08/2015
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