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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Clinical Psychology Review (Impact Factor: 7.18). 05/2008; 28(4):692-708. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have conflicts with adults and peers, and suffer from unpopularity, rejection by peers, and a lack of friendships, in part as a consequence of their ADHD symptoms. Comorbid oppositional defiant or conduct disorder aggravates these impairments. In some cases the inadequate social behavior of children with ADHD may be phenomenologically and etiologically related to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, the causes and consequences of PDD symptoms in ADHD are understudied. Also, the relative contributions of ADHD, on the one hand, and comorbid disorders, on the other, to the course of social impairments are unknown. Social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD appears to increase their risk of later psychopathology other than ADHD. Thus far effective treatment for social dysfunctioning is lacking. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD, and focus on development of effective treatment strategies.

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Available from: Ruud B Minderaa, Aug 13, 2015
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    • "It is plausible that the relationship between hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and social problems is more evident in this context. Restless and intrusive behaviors are often inappropriate and may be resistant to correction (Nijmeijer et al., 2008), affecting relationships with teachers and peers. In fact, disruptive classroom behavior has been associated with lowered social status and greater peer rejection (Frederick & Olmi, 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between motor performance; attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms; and social problems. Correlations between parents' versus teachers' ratings of social problems and ADHD symptomatology were also examined. A total of 129 children aged 9 to 12 years were included. ADHD symptoms and social problems were identified based on Conners' Rating Scales-Revised: L, and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development was used to assess motor skills. After controlling for ADHD symptomatology, motor skills remained a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model but not in the parent model. After controlling for motor skills, inattentive (not hyperactive-impulsive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the parent model, whereas hyperactive-impulsive (not inattentive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model. The findings suggested that intervention strategies should consider the interaction between symptoms and environmental contexts. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1087054715580394 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Children with ADHD often have peer conflicts, are less popular with peers, experience higher levels of peer rejection, and lack close friendships. These social difficulties evident in children with ADHD appear to increase their risk of later psychopathology (Nijmeijer et al., 2008). Similarly, preliminary findings have revealed that adolescents with SB have enduring attention problems that are associated with difficulties with social competence (Rose & Holmbeck, 2007), such as fewer friendships and a lower level of closeness with same-age peers (Holmbeck et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the longitudinal relationship between neuropsychological functioning and internalizing symptoms, as mediated by social competence in youth with spina bifida (SB). Methods A total of 111 youth (aged 8–15 years, M = 11.37) with SB, their parents, and teachers completed questionnaires regarding attention, social competence, and internalizing symptoms. Youth also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results An indirect-only mediation model revealed that social competence mediated the relation between neuropsychological functioning and subsequent levels of teacher-reported internalizing symptoms, but not parent or youth report of internalizing symptoms. Specifically, better neuropsychological functioning was associated with better social competence, which, in turn, predicted fewer internalizing symptoms 2 years later. Conclusions Youth with SB with lower levels of neuropsychological functioning may be at risk for poorer social competence and, as a result, greater internalizing symptoms. Interventions that promote social competence, while being sensitive to cognitive capacities, could potentially alleviate or prevent internalizing symptoms in these youth.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 09/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu075 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    • "ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and has recently become one of the most commonly diagnosed developmental disorders in children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Inattention , hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior in children with ADHD can result in social problems (for review, Nijmeijer et al., 2008; Uekermann et al., 2010). Children with ADHD experience seriously disturbed peer relations and tend to be excluded from peer activities (Hoza et al., 2005; Landau & Moore, 1991; Owens, Hinshaw, Lee, & Lahey, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of thirteen ADHD boys and thirteen TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.
    Neuropsychologia 08/2014; 63. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.010 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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