Preadipocytes are considered to play a role in adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) modulates the nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in preadipocytes. Undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells, a model of preadipocytes, significantly produced NO by the treatment with the combination of lipopolysaccharide (L), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (T) and interferon-gamma (I). Pre-incubation with simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, or pravastatin, a hydrophilic one, dose-dependently inhibited the NO production in the LTI-treated cells. The effect of simvastatin was offset by mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) but not by squalene. The mRNA level for iNOS paralleled the NO production. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was activated by the LTI-treatment, and was inhibited by addition of simvastatin or pravastatin. Mevalonate or GGPP completely offset the effect of simvastatin. Simvastatin or pravastatin also decreased the LTI-stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. These effects of pravastatin were relatively weak compared with those of simvastatin. Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase, also inhibited the LTI-induced NF-kappaB activation and iNOS expression, and decreased the production of NO and IL-6 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. These results suggest that statins, especially lipophilic types, inhibit induction of iNOS by inhibiting the small GTP-binding protein signal in preadipocytes.
"It is well known that high-fat diets or obesity result in the activation of NF- kappaB, leading to over-expression of its target genes such as IL-6, iNOS, TNF alpha [33,34]. The induction of iNOS and excess production of NO have been recognized as a major contributor to beta cell injury [35,36]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate, a PPAR alpha agonist, has been widely used in clinics as lipid-regulating agent. PPAR alpha is known to be expressed in many organs including pancreatic beta cells and regulate genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Some reports based on cell lines or animals have provided evidences that PPAR alpha agonists may affect (increased or suppressed) beta cell insulin secretion, and several studies are producing interesting but still debated results.
In this research, we investigated the long term effects of fenofibrate on beta cell function in a metabolic syndrome animal model, monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obese rats. Obese MSG rats were administered by gavage with fenofibrate at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed to evaluate glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. We have used the hyperglycemic clamp technique to evaluate the capacity of beta cell insulin secretion. This technique provides an unbiased approach to understand the beta cell function in vivo. The changes of gene and protein expression in the pancreas and islets were also analyzed by Real-Time-PCR, Western blot and immunostaining.
Fenofibrate reduced the plasma lipid levels within a few days, and showed no beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis or insulin sensitivity in obese MSG rats. But the animals treated with fenofibrate exhibited significantly decreased fasting plasma insulin and impaired insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation. Further studies confirmed that fenofibrate increased MDA level and decreased total ATPase activity in pancreatic mitochondrion, accompanied by the upregulation of iNOS and NF-kappa B and TNF alpha expression in pancreatic islets of obese MSG rats.
Long-term fenofibrate treatment disrupted beta cell function, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in obese MSG rats, perhaps to some extent associated with the activated inflammatory pathway and increased formation of oxidative products, especially the up-regulation of NF-kappa B and iNOS expression in islets.
Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2011; 9(1):176. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-9-176 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) by hydroxyl fasudil improves cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia (Huang et al., Cell Mol Neurobiol 28:757-768, 2008). In this study, fasudil mesylate (FM) was investigated for its neuroprotective potential in rats with ischemia following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. The effect of fasudil mesylate was also studied in rat brain cortical and hippocampal slices treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injury. Gross anatomy showed that cerebral infarct size, measured with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, was significantly smaller in the FM-treated than in the non-FM-treated ischemic rats. In the brain regions vulnerable to ischemia of ischemic rats, fasudil mesylate was also found to significantly restore the enzyme protein expression level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which was decreased in ischemia. However, it remarkably reduced the protein synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that was induced by ischemia and reperfusion. In rat brain slices treated with OGD injury, fasudil mesylate increased the neuronal cell viability by 40% for cortex and by 61% for hippocampus, respectively. Finally, in the presence of OGD and fasudil mesylate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased by 50% for cortex and by 58% for hippocampus, compared to OGD only group. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that fasudil mesylate not only decreased neurological deficit but also reduced cerebral infarct size, possibly and at least partially by augmenting eNOS protein expression and inhibiting iNOS protein expression after ischemia-reperfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis may be modeled using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which alters levels of nitric oxide (NO), synthesized via endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS). This study aimed to determine whether the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor fasudil protected against LPS-induced (endotoxemia) macromolecular leak and leukocyte adhesion via NOS pathways. Male Wistar rats (283±8g, n=36) were anaesthetized with thiopental and the mesentery prepared for fluorescent intravital microscopy (IVM). Animals received either (i) LPS alone (150μg kg(-1) h(-1) i.v., n=6); (ii) fasudil (FAS, 3mg kg(-1) i.v., n=6) or (iii) fasudil (10mg kg(-1) i.v., n=6), immediately prior to LPS administration, (iv) fasudil (FAS, 3mg kg(-1) i.v., n=6) alone or (v) fasudil (FAS, 10mg kg(-1) i.v., n=6) alone, or (vi) saline alone (1ml kg(-1) h(-1) i.v, n=6) for 4h (240min). LPS increased macromolecular leak (cumulative normalized grey levels, arbitrary units) from post capillary venules (<40μm) and this was reduced by 3mg kg(-1) fasudil, however, 10mg kg(-1) was less effective (t=240min, control: 3.3±1.7; LPS: 15.1±2.0; LPS+3mg kg(-1) fasudil: 3.3±1.1 (p<0.05), LPS+10mg kg(-1) fasudil: 8.4±3.2 NS). The numbers of leukocytes adhering for >1min/100μm venule were reduced by fasudil (t=240min, control: 1.8±0.7; LPS: 7.0±1.0; LPS+3mg kg(-1) fasudil: 1.75±0.25, p<0.05; LPS+10mg kg(-1) fasudil: 1.8±0.8, p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that fasudil increased endothelial cell expression of eNOS during sepsis, and decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of iNOS. Inhibition of ROCK in rats increases eNOS and decreases iNOS during endotoxemia, concomitantly reducing microvascular inflammation. Thus, targeting the ROCK pathway during sepsis could have therapeutic potential for reducing inflammation via a NO dependent mechanism.
Microvascular Research 02/2011; 81(3):281-8. DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2011.02.003 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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