An extended epidermal response heals cutaneous wounds in the absence of a hair follicle stem cell contribution.
ABSTRACT Hair follicles have been observed to provide a major cellular contribution to epidermal healing, with emigration of stem-derived cells from the follicles aiding in wound reepithelialization. However, the functional requirements for this hair follicle input are unknown. Here we have characterized the keratinocyte stem cell status of mutant mice that lack all hair follicle development on their tail, and analyzed the consequent alterations in epidermal wound healing rate and mechanisms. In analyzing stem cell behavior in embryonic skin we found that clonogenic keratinocytes are relatively frequent in the ectoderm prior to hair follicle formation. However, their frequency in the interfollicular epidermis drops sharply by birth, at which time the majority of stem cells are present within the hair follicles. We find that in the absence of hair follicles cutaneous wounds heal with an acute delay in reepithelialization. This delay is followed by expansion of the region of activated epidermis, beyond that seen in normal haired skin, followed by appropriate wound closure. JID Journal Club article: for questions, answers, and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub.
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ABSTRACT: The epidermis is maintained by epidermal stem cells (ESCs) that reside in distinct niches and contribute to homeostasis and wound closure. Keratinocytes at the nonhealing edges of venous ulcers (VUs) are healing-incompetent, hyperproliferative, and nonmigratory, suggesting deregulation of ESCs. To date, genes which regulate ESC niches have been studied in mice only. Utilizing microarray analysis of VU nonhealing edges, we identified changes in expression of genes harboring regulation of ESCs and their fate. In a prospective clinical study of 10 VUs, we confirmed suppression of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) as well as inhibitors of DNA-binding proteins 2 and 4 (ID2 and ID4). We also found decreased levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), nuclear presence of β-catenin, and overexpression of its transcriptional target, c-myc, indicating activation of the Wnt pathway. Additionally, we found down-regulation of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (LRIG1), a gene important for maintaining ESCs in a quiescent state, and absence of keratin 15 (K15), a marker of the basal stem cell compartment suggesting local depletion of ESCs. Our study shows that loss of genes important for regulation of ESCs and their fate along with activation of β-catenin and c-myc in the VU may contribute to ESC deprivation and a hyperproliferative, nonmigratory healing incapable wound edge.Wound Repair and Regeneration 03/2014; 22(2). · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Wound healing is a complex but well-orchestrated tissue repair process composed of a series of molecular and cellular events conducted by various types of cells and extracellular matrix. Despite a variety of therapeutic strategies proposed to accelerate the healing of acute and/or chronic wounds over the past few decades, effective treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds still remains a challenge. Due to the recent advances in stem cell research, a dramatic enthusiasm has been drawn to the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have prolonged self-renewal capacity and are able to differentiate into various tissue types. Nevertheless, use of embryonic stem cells is limited, owing to ethical concerns and legal restrictions. Adult stem cells, which could be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, skin and hair follicles,are being explored extensively to facilitate the healing of both acute and chronic wounds. The current article summarizes recent research on various types of stem cell-based strategies applied to improve wound healing. In addition, future directions of stem cell-based therapy in wound healing have also been discussed. Finally, despite its apparent advantages, limitations and challenges of stem cell therapy are discussed.Wound Repair and Regeneration 03/2014; 22(2):151-60. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complex anatomy of the epidermis contains multiple adult stem cell populations, but the extent to which they functionally overlap during homeostasis, wound healing, and tumor initiation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Lrig1(+ve) cells are highly proliferative epidermal stem cells. Long-term clonal analysis reveals that Lrig1(+ve) cells maintain the upper pilosebaceous unit, containing the infundibulum and sebaceous gland as independent compartments, but contribute to neither the hair follicle nor the interfollicular epidermis, which are maintained by distinct stem cell populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation. In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance.Cell stem cell 08/2013; · 23.56 Impact Factor