Regional cerebral metabolic rate (positron emission tomography) during inhalation of nitrous oxide 50% in humans
ABSTRACT Recent studies in man have shown that cerebral blood flow increases during inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a finding which is believed to be a result of an increased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). However, this has not previously been evaluated in man.
Regional CMR(glu) (rCMR(glu)) was measured three dimensionally with positron emission tomography (PET) after injection of 2-(18F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in 10 spontaneously breathing men (mean age 31 yr) inhaling either N2O 50% in O2 30% or O2 30% in N2.
Global CMR(glu) in young men was 27 (3) micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1) [mean (SD)]. Inhalation of N2O 50% did not change global CMR(glu) [30 (5) micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1)] significantly, but it changed the distribution of the metabolism in the brain (P<0.0001 analysis of variance). Compared with inhalation of O2 30% in N2, N2O 50% inhalation increased the metabolism in the basal ganglia [14 (17)%, P<0.05] and thalamus [22 (23) %, P<0.05]. There was a prolonged metabolic effect of N2O inhalation seen on a succeeding PET scan with oxygen-enriched air (P<0.0001) performed 1 h after the N2O administration.
Inhalation of N2O 50% did not change global CMR(glu), but the metabolism increased in central brain structures, an effect that was still present 1 h after discontinuation of N2O.
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ABSTRACT: Nowadays, nitrous oxide is a highly used anaesthetic agent. Although it has been used in general anaesthesia for more than 150 years, the potential adverse effects (postoperative nausea and vomiting, vitamin B12 metabolism interaction and the limitation of inspired oxygen concentration) ensure that its continued use in modern anaesthesia is questioned. The objective of this study is to review the arguments for and against the use of nitrous oxide.06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tacc.2014.06.001
Dataset: Kuhlmann-2013-PLoS One
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ABSTRACT: Conflicting reports about adverse events following nitrous oxide (N(2)O) application have spurred a discussion whether N(2)O should be abandoned from clinical practice. Concurrently, N(2)O is increasingly used as a single anesthetic agent in medical procedures. This article reviews and discusses reports about the present use of N(2)O. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple publications demonstrate an increasing use of N(2)O as a procedural analgesic and sedative. Results from the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia trial have been contrasted by recent studies reporting no increased risk for perioperative complications, particularly related to the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. Recent studies show that electroencephalogram-based anesthesia depth monitoring is not compatible with the use of N(2)O because of its distinct influence on electroencephalogram wave patterns. The clinical relevance of the proposed neurotoxicity, immunosuppression and influence on methionine metabolism remains unclear. Recently, its acute and long-term analgesic potency has been proven. Occupational exposure might pose a relevant health hazard. SUMMARY: Based on the present literature, abolishment of N(2)O is controversial. When avoided in patients at risk for adverse events, N(2)O is still a valuable supplement to general anesthesia and a potent procedural analgesic drug. In the latter, its use by nonanesthesiologists should be discouraged.Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 06/2013; 26(3):354-60. DOI:10.1097/ACO.0b013e32835f8151 · 2.53 Impact Factor