Characteristics of clock drawing test (CDT) errors by the dementia type: Quantitative and qualitative analyses

Department of Neurology, Chungnam University Hospital, 640 Daesa-dong, Joong-ku, Daejon 301-721, Republic of Korea.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Impact Factor: 1.85). 12/2007; 48(1):58-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed


We wanted to define the characteristics of errors on the clock drawing test (CDT) and we also wanted to determine their value for making the early diagnosis of dementia, so the performance of patients with three types of dementia on the four CDT was evaluated. The patients with subcortical vascular dementia (VaD) and patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) had more stimulus bound responses. Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) made significantly more conceptual deficit (CD) errors. The CD correlated with the severity of dementia and it could be detected in the early and mild stage of dementia. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the errors on the CDT might be useful for making the early differential diagnosis of dementia types.

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    • "On the basis of this result and to improve our knowledge about ADAM10 as a potential peripheral biomarker for AD, in this study, we correlated data on platelet ADAM10 expression and CDT, an extensively used test for the screening of cognitive impairments in the elderly patients. Additionally, CDT is an easy test to administrate and interpret, presenting high sensitivity and specificity (85%), and together with Verbal Fluency Test and Trail Making Test-B, is the main recommended to measure executive functioning (Lee et al., 2009; Bossers et al., 2012). Few studies have correlated CDT with AD biomarkers (Palmqvist et al., 2012), but several have used other cognitive tests to correlate with CSF biomarkers for AD (Buchhave et al., 2009; Llano et al., 2011; Ewers et al., 2012; Palmqvist et al., 2012) or blood biomarkers, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) isoforms (Baskin et al., 2000; Borroni et al., 2003; Zainaghi et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated that a disintegrin and metallopeptidase 10 (ADAM10) levels are reduced in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether platelet ADAM10 levels correlates with the clock drawing test (CDT) scores, which is a simple and a reliable measure of visuospatial ability and executive function in AD patients. Thirty elderly patients with probable AD and 25 healthy patients forming the control group, matched by age, gender, and educational level, were evaluated. Platelet proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and ADAM10 was identified by western blotting. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between ADAM10 and CDT was obtained for each group. The areas under the curves were used to compare the receiver operating characteristic curves. The CDT scores and platelet ADAM10 expression were significantly different between patients with AD and controls and also along the disease's progression. In AD patients, there was a positive correlation between ADAM10 expression and CDT scores. Among non-AD subjects, no correlation was found. The combination of ADAM10 and CDT was significantly better to confirm the AD diagnosis than the AUCs of ADAM10 and CDT separately. The association of blood-based biomarkers, such as ADAM10, and cognitive tests may be helpful for a more reliable AD diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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