Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: consensus and controversies in 2007.
ABSTRACT Variability in practice can be considered to foster clinical innovation, and allow for individualized therapeutic plans and independence of practitioners. The Institute of Medicine, however, has issued a report suggesting that variability in patterns of practice are "illogical", and should be avoided whenever possible. Perhaps nowhere in the field of congenital cardiac disease is variability in practice more apparent than in the management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This review assesses the variability in practice at a large number of centres that manage neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, with an emphasis on practice before, during, and after the first stage of the Norwood sequence of operations. We also suggest changes in future strategies for research. In March, 2007, colleagues were contacted to respond to an internet-based survey using commercially available software (www.surveymonkey.com) to collect responses about the management practices for neonates with "straight-forward" hypoplastic left heart syndrome. No attempt was made to correlate management practices with any measures of outcome, as neither the practices themselves, nor the outcomes of interest, could be externally validated. Data is reported from 52 centers thought to manage over 1000 neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome on an annual basis. The first stage of the Norwood sequence was "recommended" to families by approximately five-sixths (86.5%) of the centres. No centre recommended primary cardiac transplantation, a "hybrid" approach, or non-intervention. In 7 centres (14.5%), it was reported that there was discussion of some or all of the above options, but ultimately the families decided upon the appropriate strategy. Most centres preferentially used antegrade cerebral perfusion (54%) in contrast to deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest (24%), albeit that 11% of centres used a combination of these techniques and in 9% the support strategy was based on surgeon preference. The source of flow of blood for the lungs following the first stage of reconstruction was also highly variable. Of the 51 centres that responded to the question, 13 (25.5%) were participating in a multi-centric randomized clinical trial comparing the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt to the conduit placed from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, the so-called "Sano" modification. Of the remaining 38 centres, 18 "usually" placed a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, 14 "usually" placed a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, and at six centres, the decision was made "based upon the preference of the surgeon and/or the cardiologist". Similarly, significant variability in practice was evident in preoperative management, other surgical strategies, postoperative medical support, monitoring and discharge planning. Other than the randomized clinical trial of shunt type, no other medical or surgical management strategy was currently under investigation in a multi-centric or randomized trial in the centres who responded to the survey. The survey emphasises the extreme variability in our current practices for treatment of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. While there are some areas for which there is consensus in management, the majority of our practices are variable between and within centres. These results emphasize that large multicentric trials and registries are necessary to improve care, and to answer important clinical questions, emphasizing the need to shift from analysis of experiences of single centres to multi-centric and multi-disciplinary collaboration.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to review the early results of hybrid procedures in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) at our institution. METHOD: Eight HLHS patients were submitted to the first stage of the procedure and the indications were the surgeon's preference in 4 (50%), sepsis in 2 (25%), severe ventricular dysfunction in 1 (12.5%) and severe brain damage with pulmonary hypertension in the latter (12.5%). RESULTS: Three (37.5%) patients died after the intervention, 2 (25%) underwent the second stage and none underwent the third stage. Three (37.5%) patients are currently waiting for the second stage and 2 of these are currently hospitalized: one with pneumonia-related sepsis and the other with pneumonia post atrial septal defect stenting. Reinterventions were necessary in 50% of the cases, more than once in 2 patients (balloon atrioseptostomy in 3 and atrial septal defect stenting in 1). Mean mechanical ventilation duration in the first stage was 585 hours and mean hospitalization time in the intensive care unit was 32 days. Both patients undergoing the second stage died: sudden death in one and residual left pulmonary artery stenosis after percutaneous dilatation in the other. CONCLUSION: Hybrid procedures should be considered as complex as Norwood operation due to the learning curve, technically difficulties to perform the second stage, need of multiple interstage reinterventions and anatomic sequelae related to previous procedures.Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva. 09/2009; 17(3):369-377.
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ABSTRACT: Motor skills and neurodevelopment in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who have undergone Hybrid Stage I palliation is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess early neurodevelopment in infants with HLHS after Hybrid Stage I palliation. Developmental assessment was performed in HLHS infants who underwent Hybrid Stage I palliation at 2 and 4 months of age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance, and at 6 months of age, prior to undergoing the second staged surgery, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Results were compared to healthy control subjects and norm-referenced data. The HLHS group scored between -1 and -2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean at 2 months of age (p = 0.002), and within -1 SD of the mean, at 4 months of age (p = 0.0019), on the TIMP. Compared to the control group, composite motor skills were significantly lower at 6 months of age on the Bayley-III in the HLHS group (p = 0.0489), however, not significant for cognitive (p = 0.29) or language (p = 0.68). Percentile rank motor scores were 17 ± 20 % in the HLHS group compared to 85 ± 12 % for the healthy age-matched control group. Infants with HLHS who undergo Hybrid Stage I palliation score lower on standardized motor skill tests compared to healthy age-matched controls and the norm-referenced population. This suggests that infants with HLHS have poorer motor skill performance than typically developing infants at 6 months of age.Pediatric Cardiology 11/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Much data exist concerning Norwood discharge mortality. Less is known about late survival. Examining the available data in light of the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial is insightful as focus shifts toward long-term survival.Current Opinion in Cardiology 11/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor