Article

Rapid adaptive divergence in new world achillea, an autopolyploid complex of ecological races.

Department of Integrated Biology, University of Guelph, 488 Gordon St, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.66). 04/2008; 62(3):639-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00264.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants.

Full-text

Available from: Brian C Husband, Apr 24, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
100 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: • Information about geographic distribution of cytotypes can provide insight into the origin and maintenance of autopolyploid complexes and builds a foundation for understanding cytotype differentiation and the dynamics of mixed-ploidy populations. Here, we investigate environmental correlates of the geographic distributions of 6x and 9x individuals in the ecologically dominant grass Andropogon gerardii to examine the role of climate in shaping patterns of cytotype distribution in this species.• Flow cytometry was used to estimate ploidy level in 352 individuals from 32 populations across North America. Ecological differentiation of cytotypes was tested by relating BIOCLIM variables to cytotype distribution using principal components analysis and partial linear regression.• Broad geographic sampling confirmed two primary cytotypes-6x (hexaploid) and 9x (enneaploid)-and revealed that 9x plants are more common than previously thought. Enneaploids occur frequently in the southern portions of the range, with hexaploids dominating in northern regions. Mixed-ploidy populations were common (46.9%). Principal components analysis and partial linear regression indicated that reduced summer precipitation and increased variation in diurnal and seasonal temperature range were significant predictors of the frequency of 9x plants in a population.• Results indicate that (1) geographic distribution of 6x and 9x individuals is nonrandom; (2) environmental variables are associated with cytotype distribution in A. gerardii; and (3) nearly half of populations surveyed include both 6x and 9x individuals. The persistence of mixed-ploidy populations may reflect a combination of recurrent polyploid formation and the prevalence of clonal reproduction. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
    American Journal of Botany 01/2015; 102(1):92-102. DOI:10.3732/ajb.1400296 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated genetic variation and evolutionary history of closely related taxa of Picris subsect. Hieracioides with major focus on the widely distributed P. hieracioides and its closely related congeners, P. hispidissima, P. japonica, P. olympica, and P. nuristanica. Accessions from 140 sample sites of the investigated Picris taxa were analyzed on the infra- and the inter-specific level using nuclear (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL(UAG) region) DNA sequences. Genetic patterns of P. hieracioides, P. hispidissima, and P. olympica were shown to be incongruent and, in several cases, both plastid and nuclear alleles transcended borders of the taxa and genetic lineages. The widespread P. hieracioides was genetically highly variable and non-monophyletic across both markers, with allele groups having particular geographic distributions. Generally, all gene trees and networks displayed only a limited and statistically rather unsupported resolution among ingroup taxa causing their phylogenetic relationships to remain rather unresolved. More light on these intricate evolutionary relationships was cast by the Bayesian coalescent-based analysis, although some relationships were still left unresolved. A combination of suite of phylogenetic analyses revealed the ingroup taxa to represent a complex of genetically closely related and morphologically similar entities that have undergone a highly dynamic and recent evolution. This has been especially affected by the extensive and recurrent gene flow among and within the studied taxa and/or by the maintenance of ancestral variation. Paucity of phylogenetically informative signal further hampers the reconstruction of relationships on the infra- as well as on the inter-specific level. In the present study, we have demonstrated that a combination of various phylogenetic analyses of datasets with extremely complex and incongruent phylogenetic signal may shed more light on the interrelationships and evolutionary history of analysed species groups.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e104929. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104929 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus Actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild Actinidia plants remain much less understood. Here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the A. chinensis species complex. We then characterize the extent of both genetic and epigenetic diversity and differentiation exhibited between individuals of different ploidy levels. Our results showed that while there are three ploidy levels in this population, hexaploids were constituted the majority (70.3%). Individuals with different ploidy levels were microgeographically structured in relation to elevation and extent of niche disturbance. The morphological characters examined revealed clear difference between diploids and hexaploids, however tetraploids exhibited intermediate forms. Both genetic and epigenetic diversity were high but the differentiation among cytotypes was weak, suggesting extensive gene flow and/or shared ancestral variation occurred in this population even across ploidy levels. Epigenetic variation was clearly correlated with changes in altitudes, a trend of continuous genetic variation and gradual increase of epigenomic heterogeneities of individuals was also observed. Our results show that complex interactions between the locally microgeographical environment, ploidy and gene flow impact A. chinensis genetic and epigenetic variation. We posit that an increase in ploidy does not broaden the species habitat range, but rather permits A. chinensis adaptation to specific niches.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117596. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117596 · 3.53 Impact Factor