Juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis.
ABSTRACT Autoimmune thyroiditis is a frequent cause of goiter in children and studies point to the increasing prevalence of juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis (JAT) in children and adolescents. Clinically, JAT can manifest, depending on the presence or absence of goiter, as either a goitrous form or atrophic form. Both are characterized by the presence of thyroid antibodies in serum, with the goitrous form being more common in children. Recent evidence suggests that thyroid autoimmunity originates from an interaction of genetic, endogenous and environmental factors which end up activating thyroid-specific autoreactive T-cells in susceptible children. In addition to underlying genetic/HLA predisposition, factors including sex hormones, glucocorticoids, low birth weight, radiation and drugs may play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Patients with JAT can present due to thyroid enlargement or symptoms arising due to hypothyroidism. Asymptomatic enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common presenting complaint, especially in older children and adolescents. Thyroid function can vary from euthyroidism to subclinical or overt forms of hypothyroidism and less commonly hyperthyroidism. Accordingly, patients can be symptomatic. There is considerable debate regarding the management of patients with euthyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism. Available evidence indicates the presence of residual goiter in endemic form and a high prevalence of JAT in children. It is suggested that children should be screened for goiter as part of school health examinations, and goitrous children should be monitored for thyroid function.
- SourceAvailable from: Eliska Potlukova HorakovaEdited by Eliska Potlukova978-953-51-0970-9, 02/2013; InTech.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with autoimmune thyroiditis can present with thyroid function that varies from euthyroidism to frank hypothyroidism or occasionally hyperthyroidism. Although there is a risk of progression from the euthyroid or subclinical hypothyroid state to frank hypothyroidism, the rate of progression is not known. Subjects with diffuse goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis were followed up to observe the rate of deterioration in thyroid function from euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid states to hypothyroidism. Patients who presented with goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis were grouped as those with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism on the basis of levels of thyroxine and thyrotropin at presentation. Patients were followed up for a minimum duration of 24 months with periodic monitoring of thyroid function. Ninety-eight consecutive subjects (aged of 8-18 years) with a diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis and diffuse goiter were studied. At presentation, in 24 subjects (24.5%) thyroid function was normal (euthyroidism), 32 (32.6%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, and the remaining 42 subjects (42.9%) had hypothyroidism. All of the subjects with hypothyroid were maintained euthyroid on thyroxine during follow-up. Hypothyroidism developed in 3 of 24 patients with euthyroidism and in 4 of 32 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Subjects with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis need periodic monitoring of thyroid function. Development of thyroid dysfunction is insidious and may not be accompanied by symptoms and clinical signs. In pediatric and adolescent age groups it is imperative to correct thyroid dysfunction to achieve optimal growth and development.PEDIATRICS 10/2008; 122(3):e670-4. DOI:10.1542/peds.2008-0493
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%). Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients) were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients) as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma). The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%): the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy) and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.Turk Patoloji Dergisi 01/2010; DOI:10.5146/tjpath.2010.01012