Juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis.
ABSTRACT Autoimmune thyroiditis is a frequent cause of goiter in children and studies point to the increasing prevalence of juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis (JAT) in children and adolescents. Clinically, JAT can manifest, depending on the presence or absence of goiter, as either a goitrous form or atrophic form. Both are characterized by the presence of thyroid antibodies in serum, with the goitrous form being more common in children. Recent evidence suggests that thyroid autoimmunity originates from an interaction of genetic, endogenous and environmental factors which end up activating thyroid-specific autoreactive T-cells in susceptible children. In addition to underlying genetic/HLA predisposition, factors including sex hormones, glucocorticoids, low birth weight, radiation and drugs may play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Patients with JAT can present due to thyroid enlargement or symptoms arising due to hypothyroidism. Asymptomatic enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common presenting complaint, especially in older children and adolescents. Thyroid function can vary from euthyroidism to subclinical or overt forms of hypothyroidism and less commonly hyperthyroidism. Accordingly, patients can be symptomatic. There is considerable debate regarding the management of patients with euthyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism. Available evidence indicates the presence of residual goiter in endemic form and a high prevalence of JAT in children. It is suggested that children should be screened for goiter as part of school health examinations, and goitrous children should be monitored for thyroid function.
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ABSTRACT: Alterations in the naive T cell subpopulations have been demonstrated in patients with T cell mediated autoimmune disorders, reminiscent of immunological changes found in the elderly during immunosenescence, including the switch from CD45RA + to CD45RO + T cells and decreased thymic function with increased compensatory proliferative mechanisms, partly associated with latent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The present study was aimed to investigate proportions of lymphocytes, their relation to CMV-seropositivity and the replicative history of CD45RA + expressing T cells in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n = 18) and healthy controls (HC, n = 70). Proportions of peripheral T cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The replicative history was assessed by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and relative telomere length (RTL). Expression of CD62L was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in thyroid sections. The role of CMV was assessed by serology, ELISPOT assay and in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrated a significant increase of CD28-negative T cells, associated with CMV-seropositivity in HT patients. HT showed abundant CD45RO + T cells with peripheral loss of CD62L-expressing CD8 + CD45RA + T cells, the latter mainly depending on disease duration. CD62L was expressed in thyroid lymphocyte infiltrations. The diagnosis of HT and within the HT group CMV-seropositivity were the main determinants for the loss of CD28 expression. RTL was not different between HC and HT. HT showed significantly lower TRECs in CD4 + CD45RA + T cells compared to HC. Patients with HT display a peripheral T cell phenotype reminiscent of findings in elderly persons or other autoimmune disorders. Whether these mechanisms are primary or secondary to the immunological alterations of autoimmune conditions should be investigated in longitudinal studies which may open research on new therapeutic regimes for treatment of HT and associated autoimmune diseases.BMC Endocrine Disorders 09/2013; 13(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1472-6823-13-34 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the status of iodine nutrition in children and adolescents in Almería, Spain. To calculate prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in pediatric ages and to research into associated factors. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. By a multistage probability sampling 1387 children and adolescents aged between 1 and 16 were selected. Physical examination was carried out including neck palpation. Parents were asked about eating habits as well as about social and demographic aspects. Urinary iodine, free thyroxine, TSH, antiperoxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies were measured. TA was diagnosed when any antibody was positive and AT when autoimmunity was associated with impaired thyroid function or goitre. Results are shown using percentages (and its 95% confidence interval). To study associated factors we used multiple logistic regression, quantifying the relation with odds ratio (OR), and multiple lineal regression. Median urinary iodine concentration was 199.5 μg/l. The prevalences of TA and AT were 3.7% (2.4-5.0) and 1.4% (0.4-2.4). TA is associated with female sex (OR 2.78; P<0.001) and age (OR 1.30; P<0.001). Iodine status is associated with the intake of milk and dairy product (P<0.001) and vegetable (P=0.021) but not with use of iodized salt at home (P=0.1). The iodine supply in children and adolescents in our city is optimal. Milk and dairy products are the most important iodine sources. TA and AT are prevalent in pediatric ages in our city mainly in females and older subjects.European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2012; 167(3):387-92. DOI:10.1530/EJE-12-0267 · 3.69 Impact Factor
Edited by Eliska Potlukova978-953-51-0970-9, 02/2013; InTech.