Juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis.
ABSTRACT Autoimmune thyroiditis is a frequent cause of goiter in children and studies point to the increasing prevalence of juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis (JAT) in children and adolescents. Clinically, JAT can manifest, depending on the presence or absence of goiter, as either a goitrous form or atrophic form. Both are characterized by the presence of thyroid antibodies in serum, with the goitrous form being more common in children. Recent evidence suggests that thyroid autoimmunity originates from an interaction of genetic, endogenous and environmental factors which end up activating thyroid-specific autoreactive T-cells in susceptible children. In addition to underlying genetic/HLA predisposition, factors including sex hormones, glucocorticoids, low birth weight, radiation and drugs may play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Patients with JAT can present due to thyroid enlargement or symptoms arising due to hypothyroidism. Asymptomatic enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common presenting complaint, especially in older children and adolescents. Thyroid function can vary from euthyroidism to subclinical or overt forms of hypothyroidism and less commonly hyperthyroidism. Accordingly, patients can be symptomatic. There is considerable debate regarding the management of patients with euthyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism. Available evidence indicates the presence of residual goiter in endemic form and a high prevalence of JAT in children. It is suggested that children should be screened for goiter as part of school health examinations, and goitrous children should be monitored for thyroid function.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the status of iodine nutrition in children and adolescents in Almería, Spain. To calculate prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in pediatric ages and to research into associated factors. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. By a multistage probability sampling 1387 children and adolescents aged between 1 and 16 were selected. Physical examination was carried out including neck palpation. Parents were asked about eating habits as well as about social and demographic aspects. Urinary iodine, free thyroxine, TSH, antiperoxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies were measured. TA was diagnosed when any antibody was positive and AT when autoimmunity was associated with impaired thyroid function or goitre. Results are shown using percentages (and its 95% confidence interval). To study associated factors we used multiple logistic regression, quantifying the relation with odds ratio (OR), and multiple lineal regression. Median urinary iodine concentration was 199.5 μg/l. The prevalences of TA and AT were 3.7% (2.4-5.0) and 1.4% (0.4-2.4). TA is associated with female sex (OR 2.78; P<0.001) and age (OR 1.30; P<0.001). Iodine status is associated with the intake of milk and dairy product (P<0.001) and vegetable (P=0.021) but not with use of iodized salt at home (P=0.1). The iodine supply in children and adolescents in our city is optimal. Milk and dairy products are the most important iodine sources. TA and AT are prevalent in pediatric ages in our city mainly in females and older subjects.European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2012; 167(3):387-92. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Euthyroid goiter is frequent for general practitioners (GPs) and endocrinologists (ENDOs). It may induce complications especially in elderly subjects when it becomes nodular and hyperfunctional whereas in young subjects prevention of iodine deficiency may prevent this evolution. The primary objective of the observational study diagnosis of iodine deficiency induced goiter and national medical practices (DIAGONALE) was to determine the circumstances of diagnosis of euthyroid goiter, its incidence, the patient characteristics and the management. A representative sample of GPs and ENDOs working in a private medical practice (exclusively or not) was randomly drawn from a national file without changing the physician-patient relationship. Four hundred and sixty-nine GPs and 195 ENDOs participated in the study. Goiter was diagnosed in 0.86% of patients seen by GPs and 15.7% of patients seen by ENDOs. Pregnant women were mainly and teenagers exclusively seen by ENDOs. The interview and clinical examination were an important time in the management of euthyroid goiter. TSH level was systematically assayed as well as an ultrasonography; 22.6% of GPs did not perform a scintigraphy versus 63.1% of ENDOs. Levothyroxine treatment was frequently prescribed and the objective of TSH levels was 2mU/L for GPs and 1mU/L for ENDOs. This observational study showed differences in the management of euthyroid goiter between GPs and ENDOs but also many common practices. It also highlighted a higher incidence rate of goiter in pregnant women and teenagers seen by ENDOs.Annales d Endocrinologie 06/2012; 73(3):202-7. · 0.66 Impact Factor
- Autoimmune Disorders - Current Concepts and Advances from Bedside to Mechanistic Insights, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-653-9