Mammalian type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors undergo slow, constitutive, agonist-independent internalization.

Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.64). 04/2008; 149(3):1415-22. DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-1159
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Regulatory elements present in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tails of G protein-coupled receptors contribute to agonist-dependent receptor desensitization, internalization, and association with accessory proteins such as beta-arrestin. The mammalian type I GnRH receptors are unique among the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors because they lack a cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail. In addition, they do not recruit beta-arrestin, nor do they undergo rapid desensitization. By measuring the internalization of labeled GnRH agonists, previous studies have reported that mammalian type I GnRH receptors undergo slow agonist-dependent internalization. In the present study, we have measured the internalization of epitope-tagged GnRH receptors, both in the absence and presence of GnRH stimulation. We demonstrate that mammalian type I GnRH receptors exhibit a low level of constitutive agonist-independent internalization. Stimulation with GnRH agonist did not significantly enhance the level of receptor internalization above the constitutive level. In contrast, the catfish GnRH and rat TRH receptors, which have cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tails, displayed similar levels of constitutive agonist-independent internalization but underwent robust agonist-dependent internalization, as did chimeras of the mammalian type I GnRH receptor with the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tails of the catfish GnRH receptor or the rat TRH receptor. When the carboxyl-terminal Tyr325 and Leu328 residues of the mammalian type I GnRH receptor were replaced with alanines, these two mutant receptors underwent significantly impaired internalization, suggesting a function for the Tyr-X-X-Leu sequence in mediating the constitutive agonist-independent internalization of mammalian type I GnRH receptors. These findings provide further support for the underlying notion that the absence of the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of the mammalian type I GnRH receptors has been selected for during evolution to prevent rapid receptor desensitization and internalization to allow protracted GnRH signaling in mammals.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic GnRH is the master regulator of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, and its secretion is regulated by many factors. Among these is kisspeptin (Kp), a potent trigger of GnRH secretion. Kp signals via the Kp receptor (KISS1R), a Gαq/11-coupled 7-transmembrane-spanning receptor. Until this study, it was understood that KISS1R mediates GnRH secretion via the Gαq/11-coupled pathway in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. We recently demonstrated that KISS1R also signals independently of Gαq/11 via β-arrestin and that this pathway also mediates ERK1/2 activation. Because GnRH secretion is ERK1/2-dependent, we hypothesized that KISS1R regulates GnRH secretion via both the Gαq/11- and β-arrestin-coupled pathways. To test this hypothesis, we measured LH secretion, a surrogate marker of GnRH secretion, in mice lacking either β-arrestin-1 or β-arrestin-2. Results revealed that Kp-dependent LH secretion was significantly diminished relative to wild-type mice (P < .001), thus supporting that β-arrestin mediates Kp-induced GnRH secretion. Based on this, we hypothesized that Gαq/11-uncoupled KISS1R mutants, like L148S, will display Gαq/11-independent signaling. To test this hypothesis, L148S was expressed in HEK 293 cells. and results confirmed that, although strongly uncoupled from Gαq/11, L148S retained the ability to trigger significant Kp-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation (P < .05). Furthermore, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking β-arrestin-1 and -2, we demonstrated that L148S-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation is β-arrestin-dependent. Overall, we conclude that KISS1R signals via Gαq/11 and β-arrestin to regulate GnRH secretion. This novel and important finding could explain why patients bearing some types of Gαq/11-uncoupled KISS1R mutants display partial gonadotropic deficiency and even a reversal of the condition, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
    Endocrinology 08/2014; · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Elucidating the mechanisms underlying coevolution of ligands and receptors is an important challenge in molecular evolutionary biology. Peptide hormones and their receptors are excellent models for such efforts, given the relative ease of examining evolutionary changes in genes encoding for both molecules. Most vertebrates possess multiple genes for both the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and for the GnRH receptor. The evolutionary history of the receptor family, including ancestral copy number and timing of duplications and deletions, has been the subject of controversy.ResultsWe report here for the first time sequences of three distinct GnRH receptor genes in salamanders (axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum), which are orthologous to three GnRH receptors from ranid frogs. To understand the origin of these genes within the larger evolutionary context of the gene family, we performed phylogenetic analyses and probabilistic protein homology searches of GnRH receptor genes in vertebrates and their near relatives. Our analyses revealed four points that alter previous views about the evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family. First, the ¿mammalian¿ pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans and previously presumed to be highly derived because it lacks the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain typical of most G-protein coupled receptors, is actually an ancient gene that originated in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Second, unlike previous studies, we classify vertebrate GnRH receptors into five subfamilies. Third, the order of subfamily origins is the inverse of previous proposed models. Fourth, the number of GnRH receptor genes has been dynamic in vertebrates and their ancestors, with multiple duplications and losses.Conclusion Our results provide a novel evolutionary framework for generating hypotheses concerning the functional importance of structural characteristics of vertebrate GnRH receptors. We show that five subfamilies of vertebrate GnRH receptors evolved early in the vertebrate phylogeny, followed by several independent instances of gene loss. Chief among cases of gene loss are humans, best described as degenerate with respect to GnRH receptors because we retain only a single, ancient gene.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 10/2014; 14(1):215. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Captive sea otters from these populations are owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The USFWS has requested that these sea otters be prevented from breeding in order to save captive space for wild rescued animals. Sea otters are often housed in mixed sex groups, therefore a chemical contraceptive method or surgical removal of gonads must be used to prevent potential pregnancy. The contraceptive, Suprelorin® or deslorelin, has been used in many different species to effectively suppress reproduction but duration of effect may vary not only between species but also individuals. Here, we report the effects of one to several consecutive deslorelin implants on gonadal reproductive hormones found in fecal samples from six captive sea otters (two males and four females) compared to two control otters (one male and one female) housed at three zoological institutions. We documented the longitudinal hormone signatures of many stages of the contraceptive cycle including pretreatment (PT), stimulatory phase (S), effective contraception (EC), and hormone reversal (HR) that was characterized by a return to normal hormone levels. Deslorelin was found to be an effective contraceptive in sea otters and was found to be reversible documented by a live birth following treatment, however the duration of suppression in females was much longer than expected with a 6-month and a 1-year implant lasting between 3 and 4 years in females. Zoo Biol. 32:307–315, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Zoo Biology 05/2013; 32(3). · 0.85 Impact Factor


Available from
May 27, 2014