Nanotechnology: a focus on nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5215, USA.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.17). 10/2006; 1(3):340-50. DOI: 10.1007/s11481-006-9032-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review will provide an in-depth discussion on the previous development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) and discuss original research data that includes the therapeutic enhancement of antiretroviral therapy. The use of nanoparticle DDS will allow practitioners to use drugs to target specific areas of the body. In the treatment of malignancies, the use of nanoparticles as a DDS is making measurable treatment impact. Medical imaging will also utilize DDS to illuminate tumors, the brain, or other cellular functions in the body. The utility of nanoparticle DDS to improve human health is potentially enormous.

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Available from: Christopher Destache, Aug 04, 2014
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    • "When nanoparticles are functionalized or linked to agents such as drugs, ligands, image contrast compounds through covalent linkages like amide or disulphide bonds, or through methods such as encapsulation, surface attachment or entrapment, they can be targeted towards a certain therapeutic application. For drug delivery through nanoparticles, advantages such as increased aqueous solubility, prolonged release, improved bioavailability, and decreased toxic side effects of the drug can be achieved [1]. Of the many nanoparticles emerging, gold nanoparticles have gained tremendous importance, especially in applications such as drug delivery, bioimaging, single molecule tracking, and biosensing due to some of its inherent properties [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A novel, colloidal nanogold-based drug delivery system for phenytoin, a well-known anti-epileptic drug with an enhanced efflux via P-glycoprotein, has been proposed in this study. The vital physical properties that would aid in predicting the biological interaction of this system were profiled using various techniques such as UV-Vis, DLS, and TEM in corroboration with theoretical calculations. It was significant to note that the binding of phenytoin to colloidal nanogold was strongly pH-dependent with the optimum at pH 5.5 and a consistently reproducible spectral shift. Analysis of the conjugate by FTIR revealed that the imide functional group of phenytoin mediated a dative coordinate bond to colloidal nanogold at the optimum pH. The amount of the drug bound to the gold was quantified to be 85.8±2.5% (w/v) by HPLC. Hypothetically, the surface charge of the conjugate could possibly imply charge-mediated uptake across the cell membrane. Further, the novel conjugate was screened for its cytotoxicity in two cell lines and the dosage range was identified. Subsequent development, thorough evaluations in suitable model systems, and the potential for bioimaging to track the payload would validate our hypothesis on the conjugate for better intracellular retention at the site of action, and thereby achieve the targeted delivery.
    Scientia Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 82(4):857-72. DOI:10.3797/scipharm.1402-03
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    • "In recent years, significant effort has been made in developing nanotechnology for drug delivery [1] [2] [3] to cardiovascular system [4] since it offers suitable means of localized or targeted delivery of small molecular-weight drugs, as well as macromolecules (proteins, peptides or genes) [2] [3]. There has been increasing use of synthetic biodegradable polymers for imaging and therapeutic delivery of drugs due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: For intervention of cardiovascular diseases, biodegradable and biocompatible, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) are emerging as agents of choice for controlled and targeted drug delivery. Therefore development of PLGA-NP with optimal physico-chemical properties will allow efficient binding and thus delivery of drug to targeted cells under various patho-physiological conditions. The force kinetics and its dependence on size of the NPs will be crucial for designing the NPs. Since optical tweezers allow non-contact, highly sensitive force measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution, we utilized it for studying interaction forces between magnetic PLGA nanoparticles with smooth muscle cells (SMC). In order to investigate effect of size, interaction force for 200 to 1100nm PLGA NP was measured. For similar interaction duration, the force was found to be higher with increase in size. The rupture force was found to depend on time of interaction of SMC with NPs.
    Photonics West; 10/2012
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    • "Nanoparticles (NP) are stable, solid colloidal particles consisting of biodegradable polymer or lipid materials and range in size from 10 to 1000 nm. Drugs can be absorbed onto the particle surface and are entrapped inside the polymer/lipid or dissolved within the particle matrix [11] [12]. Over the past few decades, there have been considerable interests in developing biodegradable polymeric NP as potential and effective drug delivery devices due to their ability to control drug release and delivery. "
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    ABSTRACT: In an effort to improve lymphatic targeting efficiency and reduce the toxicity of tacrolimus, the emulsification-diffusion method was used to load the drug into nanoparticles (NP). Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA surface-modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as polymers. Mean particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency of PLGA were 218+/-51nm and 60.0+/-1.2% and for PEG-PLGA NP were 220+/-33nm and 60.3+/-2.0%. NP were characterized by thermal analyzer and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and their shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro release profiles were affected by the pH of dissolution media. The prepared NP and commercial product of tacrolimus (Prograf) inj.) were intravenously administered to rats to compare their pharmacokinetic characteristics and lymphatic targeting efficiency. The area under the whole blood concentration-time curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT), and total clearance (CL(t)) of PEG-PLGA NP were significantly different (P<0.05) compared with those of Prograf inj., and lymphatic targeting efficiencies of both NP formulations at the mesenteric lymph node significantly increased (P<0.05). These results showed that the prepared tacrolimus-loaded NP are good possible candidates as a lymphatic delivery system of tacrolimus.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 08/2009; 74(2):164-71. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.08.006 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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