Nanotechnology: a focus on nanoparticles as a drug delivery system.

Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5215, USA.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 10/2006; 1(3):340-50. DOI: 10.1007/s11481-006-9032-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review will provide an in-depth discussion on the previous development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) and discuss original research data that includes the therapeutic enhancement of antiretroviral therapy. The use of nanoparticle DDS will allow practitioners to use drugs to target specific areas of the body. In the treatment of malignancies, the use of nanoparticles as a DDS is making measurable treatment impact. Medical imaging will also utilize DDS to illuminate tumors, the brain, or other cellular functions in the body. The utility of nanoparticle DDS to improve human health is potentially enormous.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Lopinavir (LPV)-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Effects of various critical factors in preparation of loaded NPs were investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE) of loaded NPs. Optimized LPV NPs exhibited nanometeric size (195.3 nm) with high EE (93.9%). In vitro drug release study showed bi-phasic sustained release behavior of LPV from NPs. Pharmacokinetic study results in male Wistar rats indicated an increase in oral bioavailability of LPV by 4-folds after incorporation into PCL NPs. From tissue distribution studies, significant accumulation of loaded NPs in tissues like liver and spleen indicated possible involvement of lymphatic route in absorption of NPs. Mechanistic studies using rat everted gut sac model revealed endocytosis as a principal mechanism of NPs uptake. In vitro rat microsomal metabolism studies demonstrated noticeable advantage of LPV NPs by affording metabolic protection to LPV. These studies indicate usefulness of PCL NPs in enhancing oral bioavailability and improving pharmacokinetic profile of LPV.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 11/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Engineered nanoparticles that can facilitate drug formulation and passively target tumours have been under extensive research in recent years. These successes have driven a new wave of significant innovation in the generation of advanced particles. The fate and transport of diagnostic nanoparticles would significantly depend on nonselective drug delivery, and hence the use of high drug dosage is implemented. In this perspective, nanocarrier-based drug targeting strategies can be used which improve the selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, i.e. drug targeting. Pharmaceutical industries majorly focus on reducing the toxicity and side effects of drugs but only recently it has been realised that carrier systems themselves may pose risks to the patient. Proteins are compatible with biological systems and they are biodegradable. They offer a multitude of moieties for modifications to tailor drug binding, imaging or targeting entities. Thus, protein nanoparticles provide outstanding contributions as a carrier for drug delivery systems. This review summarises recent progress in particle-based therapeutic delivery and discusses important concepts in particle design and biological barriers for developing the next generation of particles drug delivery systems.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 03/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence from various sources indicates alterations in 5-HT2C receptor functions in anxiety, depression and suicide, and other stress-related disorders treated with antidepressant drugs. Although the notion of a 5-HT2C receptor desensitization following antidepressant treatments is rather well anchored in the literature, this concept is mainly based on in vitro assays and/or behavioral assays (hypolocomotion, hyperthermia) that have poor relevance to anxio-depressive disorders. Our objective herein is to provide a comprehensive overview of the studies that have assessed the effects of antidepressant drugs on 5-HT2C receptors. Relevant molecular (second messengers, editing), neurochemical (receptor binding and mRNA levels), physiological (5-HT2C receptor-induced hyperthermia and hormone release), behavioral (5-HT2C receptor-induced changes in feeding, anxiety, defense and motor activity) data are summarized and discussed. Setting the record straight about drug-induced changes in 5-HT2C receptor function in specific brain regions should help to determine which pharmacotherapeutic strategy is best for affective and anxiety disorders.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 01/2014; · 10.28 Impact Factor


Available from
Aug 4, 2014