DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of breast cancer I: breast-conserving therapy.
ABSTRACT The present paper is an update of the practical guidelines for radiotherapy of breast cancer published in 2006 by the breast cancer expert panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) . These recommendations have been elaborated on the basis of the S3 guidelines of the German Cancer Society that were revised in March 2007 by an interdisciplinary panel .
The DEGRO expert panel performed a comprehensive survey of the literature, comprising lately published meta-analyses, data from recent randomized trials and guidelines of international breast cancer societies, referring to the criteria of evidence- based medicine . In addition to the more general statements of the German Cancer Society, this paper emphasizes specific radiotherapeutic aspects. It is focused on radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Technique, targeting, and dose are described in detail.
Postoperative radiotherapy significantly reduces rates of local recurrence. The more pronounced the achieved reduction is, the more substantially it translates into improved survival. Four prevented local recurrences result in one avoided breast cancer death. This effect is independent of age. An additional boost provides a further absolute risk reduction for local recurrence irrespective of age. Women > 50 years have a hazard ratio of 0.59 in favor of the boost. For DCIS, local recurrence was 2.4% per patient year even in a subgroup with favorable prognostic factors leading to premature closure of the respective study due to ethical reasons. For partial-breast irradiation as a sole method of radiotherapy, results are not yet mature enough to allow definite conclusions.
After breast-conserving surgery, whole-breast irradiation remains the gold standard of treatment. The indication for boost irradiation should no longer be restricted to women <or= 50 years. Partial-breast irradiation is still an experimental treatment and therefore discouraged outside controlled clinical trials. Omission of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery of DCIS should be restricted to individual exceptions.
Article: Analysis of cardiac and pulmonary complication probabilities after radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiobiological implications of clinical use of respiratory-gated techniques for postoperative radiation therapy of early-stage left-sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Radiation therapy treatment plans of 80 patients with early-stage breast cancer (stage I-II), receiving whole breast irradiation after breast-conserving therapy, were analyzed. The control group consisting of 47 patients received standard radiation therapy, and the respiratory-gated group consisting of 33 patients received deep inspiration-gated radiation therapy. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for cardiac mortality and for clinical radiation-induced pneumonitis were calculated for all patients included in present study, using relative seriality model. NTCP data were analyzed for 113 radiation therapy plans, which included free breathing plans for the respiratory-gated groups. Pneumonitis probability was 0.6% (range 0.0-2.8%) and 0.3% (0.0-1.2%) for control and respiratory-gated group, respectively. Cardiac mortality was 1.3% (0.0-5.0%) and 0.2% (0.0-2.8%) for control and respiratory-gated group, respectively. Using respiratory-gated radiation therapy, NTCP was reduced in comparison with the control group by 83% (P<0.00001) and by 55% (P=0.01270) for cardiac mortality and for clinical radiation-induced pneumonitis, respectively. Use of respiratory-gated radiation therapy, for postoperative treatment of early-stage breast cancer, significantly reduces excessive cardiac mortality probability and pulmonary complication probability, as compared to standard radiation therapy techniques. This is especially important from heart complication probability point of view, as cardiac mortality remains one of the important issues of postoperative breast irradiation in patients with early stage breast cancer.Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) 01/2009; 45(4):276-85. · 0.42 Impact Factor
Article: Simultaneous integrated boost for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer--intensity modulated vs. conventional radiotherapy: the IMRT-MC2 trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Addition of radiotherapy to surgery has significantly increased local control and survival rates of the disease. However, radiotherapy is also associated with side effects, such as tissue fibrosis or enhanced vascular morbidity. Modern radiotherapy strategies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), can shorten the overall treatment time by integration of the additional tumor bed boost significantly. To what extent this might be possible without impairing treatment outcome and cosmetic results remains to be clarified. The IMRT-MC2 study is a prospective, two armed, multicenter, randomized phase-III-trial comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy with integrated boost to conventional radiotherapy with consecutive boost in patients with breast cancer after breast conserving surgery. 502 patients will be recruited and randomized into two arms: patients in arm A will receive IMRT in 28 fractions delivering 50.4 Gy to the breast and 64.4 Gy to the tumor bed by integrated boost, while patients in arm B will receive conventional radiotherapy of the breast in 28 fractions to a dose of 50.4 Gy and consecutive boost in 8 fractions to a total dose of 66.4 Gy. Primary objectives of the study are the evaluation of the cosmetic results 6 weeks and 2 years post treatment and the 2- and 5-year local recurrence rates for the two different radiotherapy strategies. Secondary objectives are long term overall survival, disease free survival and quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: NCT01322854.BMC Cancer 06/2011; 11:249. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: Autologous fat graft in radiated tissue prior to alloplastic reconstruction of the breast: report of two cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The new indications for radiotherapy in the cure of breast cancer lead to an increasing number of candidates for this adjuvant treatment. However, it raises some concerns with respect to the prosthetic reconstruction of the breast. In fact, the use of implants in the irradiated breast is discouraged by many authors because of the high rate of complications. In these cases autologous tissue reconstruction is being recommended. However, not every patient is a candidate for autologous tissue reconstruction. Furthermore, not all radiotherapies are comparable in dose, timing, and patient tolerance. In this article we present the preliminary results of an alternative surgical management in oncoplastic breast surgery consisting of fat injections before implant placement. Six months after the last radiation treatment, a lumpectomy patient and a modified radical mastectomy patient each underwent two sessions of fat injection prior to implant placement, with a 3-month interval in between sessions. The implants were placed 3 months after the last fat injection. There was a 12-month follow-up for the modified radical mastectomy case and a 18-month follow-up for the lumpectomy case. In both cases we report no postoperative complications, Baker grade 1 capsule contracture, good aesthetic outcome, and high patient satisfaction. The preliminary results show that fat injection in irradiated tissue prior to breast alloplastic reconstruction may reduce the radiation-related complications on implants. Benefits from fat grafting are in keeping with the theoretical basis of this surgery. Larger studies are needed to confirm our observations.Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 06/2009; 34(1):5-10. · 1.41 Impact Factor