Nanodisk Codes

Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3113, USA.
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.59). 01/2008; 7(12):3849-53. DOI: 10.1021/nl072606s
Source: PubMed


We report a new encoding system based upon dispersible arrays of nanodisks prepared by on-wire lithography and functionalized with Raman active chromophores. These nanodisk arrays are encoded both physically (in a "barcode" pattern) and spectroscopically (Raman) along the array. These structures can be used in covert encoding strategies because of their small size or as biological labels with readout by scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate their utility in DNA detection in a multiplexed format at target concentrations as low as 100 fM.

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    • "Other multiplex SERS methods have also been developed for biosensing based on a microarray approach [114,115], multiple dye-labeling [116,117], or even on “bar-coded” noble metal NPs [118–120]. An example of the latter, are the gold barcode nanodisks fabricated by Mirkin’s group using on-wire lithography to create a barcode with 2 nm separated patterns of nanodisks over nickel wires [119]. The gaps located between the gold nanodisks acted both as “hot-spots”, to enhance the SERS signal from the Raman-active dyes, and as a physical encoded “barcode” pattern, for multiplex detection of biomolecules using confocal Raman spectroscopy. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies--from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory.
    Sensors 12/2012; 12(2):1657-87. DOI:10.3390/s120201657 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biosensors based on nanotechnology are rapidly developing and are becoming widespread in the biomedical field and analytical chemistry. For these nanobiosensors to reach their potential, they must be integrated with appropriate packaging techniques, which are usually based on nano/microfluidics. In this review we provide a summary of the latest developments in nanobiosensors with a focus on label-based (fluorescence and nanoparticle) and label-free methods (surface plasmon resonance, micro/nanocantilever, nanowires, and nanopores). An overview on how these sensors interface with nano/microfluidics is then presented and the latest papers in the area summarized.
    Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 08/2009; 7(2). DOI:10.1007/s10404-009-0431-8 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a microfluidic method to form chromatic-pattern barcodes without using photomasks as photolithography methods. Two different aqueous quantum dot solutions were loaded as liquid-state cores to form two-component microcapsules, which present as chromatic patterns under UV illumination for barcoding. This microfluidic method highly simplifies the formation of patterns without using any expensive alignment instruments and allows creating the easily discernible pattern-type barcodes with a high coding capacity up to tens of thousands. The easily discernible chromatic-pattern barcodes with a small size down to 40 μm are very promising to conduct multiplexed biomolecular assays under microscopes in general labs.
    Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 06/2013; 16(6). DOI:10.1007/s10404-013-1272-z · 2.53 Impact Factor
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