Experimental transplantation of corneal epithelium-like cells induced by Pax6 gene transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT Corneal epithelial stem cells are deficient in cases of limbal disorders, leading to conjunctival epithelial ingrowth, vascularization, and eventually visual disturbance. We introduced the eye development-associated transcription factor pax6 to embryonic stem (ES) cells and tested whether pax6-transfected cells resembling purified corneal epithelial cells were applicable as a cell source for corneal transplantation.
pax6 cDNA with green fluorescence protein was electrotransfected to ES cells and the cells were cultured with G418 for 14 days. They were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The cells were transplanted onto experimentally damaged mouse corneas. Histologic reconstitution of the corneal epithelium was assessed.
pax6-transfected cells formed a monolayer of epithelium-like cells in vitro. They expressed cytokeratin12, a specific keratin of corneal epithelial cells, E-cadherin, and CD44, which are important adhesion molecules of corneal epithelial cells on the cell membrane. They accumulated to make a colony that gave a staining pattern of reticular configuration for cytokeratin 12, E-cadherin, and CD44. When the cells were transplanted onto damaged cornea, they have been kept alive on the cornea.
The purified corneal epithelium-like cells derived from ES cells transfected with pax6 gene adapted to the injured cornea and were kept alive on it. These results suggested application of ES cell-derived corneal epithelial cells for treating corneal injuries.
- SourceAvailable from: Nadya Lumelsky[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the source of embryonic stem (ES) cells presents ethical concerns, their use may lead to many clinical benefits if differentiated cell types can be derived from them and used to assemble functional organs. In pancreas, insulin is produced and secreted by specialized structures, islets of Langerhans. Diabetes, which affects 16 million people in the United States, results from abnormal function of pancreatic islets. We have generated cells expressing insulin and other pancreatic endocrine hormones from mouse ES cells. The cells self-assemble to form three-dimensional clusters similar in topology to normal pancreatic islets where pancreatic cell types are in close association with neurons. Glucose triggers insulin release from these cell clusters by mechanisms similar to those employed in vivo. When injected into diabetic mice, the insulin-producing cells undergo rapid vascularization and maintain a clustered, islet-like organization.Science 06/2001; 292(5520):1389-94. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severe ocular surface diseases and injuries cause loss of the corneal limbal epithelium, leading to re-epithelialization by bulbar conjunctival cells, resulting in vascularization of the cornea, conjunctival scarring, and loss of visual acuity. In this study, the optimal culture condition for induction of differentiation of epithelial progenitor cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells was determined for use in transplantation to damaged cornea in mice. Mouse ES cells were cultured on Petri dishes coated with several extracellular matrix proteins, and the markers for epithelial cells were analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The optimal condition for induction of epithelial progenitor cells was determined, and the progenitors were transplanted onto mouse eyes with corneal epithelia that had been damaged by exposure to n-heptanol. Epithelial progenitors were successfully induced by culturing mouse ES cells on type IV collagen for 8 days. These progenitors expressed keratin (K)12, which is specific to corneal epithelial cells, and cell surface CD44 and E-cadherin, both of which are essential in corneal epithelial wound healing. Complete re-epithelialization of the corneal surface occurred within 24 hours after transplantation. The resultant corneal epithelial cells expressed markers of the grafted cells, and no teratomata were observed during the follow-up period. Epithelial progenitors were successfully induced in vitro from ES cells and were applicable as grafts for treating corneal epithelial injury. ES cells may become an unlimited donor source of corneal epithelial cells for corneal transplantation and may restore useful vision in patients with a deficiency of limbal epithelial cells. This is an important first trial toward assessing the use of ES cells to reconstruct corneal epithelial cells.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 01/2005; 45(12):4320-6. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have identified a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) that promotes neural differentiation of mouse ES cells. SDIA accumulates on the surface of PA6 stromal cells and induces efficient neuronal differentiation of cocultured ES cells in serum-free conditions without use of either retinoic acid or embryoid bodies. BMP4, which acts as an antineuralizing morphogen in Xenopus, suppresses SDIA-induced neuralization and promotes epidermal differentiation. A high proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons producing dopamine are obtained from SDIA-treated ES cells. When transplanted, SDIA-induced dopaminergic neurons integrate into the mouse striatum and remain positive for tyrosine hydroxylase expression. Neural induction by SDIA provides a new powerful tool for both basic neuroscience research and therapeutic applications.Neuron 11/2000; 28(1):31-40. · 15.77 Impact Factor