Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases of an underemphasized form of secondary tumor in the ovary that may mimic primary neoplasia.
ABSTRACT The potential for adenocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary to mimic primary mucinous neoplasms is a well-known issue to surgical pathologists, most of the recent literature emphasizing pancreatic and various other origins for the ovarian metastases. Although an origin in the gallbladder or extrahepatic bile ducts is acknowledged for some cases little information exists on tumors originating within the intrahepatic bile ducts. Sixteen cases of this type were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of the Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1992 and December 2006. The patients ranged from 38 to 74 years (mean 52). Thirteen presented with nonspecific pelvic symptoms similar to primary ovarian neoplasms. The hepatic tumors were radiologically detected before the ovarian lesion in 2 cases. Hepatic and ovarian masses were simultaneously detected by preoperative radiologic studies or at exploratory laparotomy in 10 cases. In the remaining 4 cases, the hepatic lesions were detected postoperatively. There were a total of 26 metastatic ovarian lesions which included 22 clinically recognized ovarian masses (range 3 to 20 cm, mean 11.8 cm). Bilateral involvement was present in 10 cases (62%) and unilateral involvement in 6 (38%). The cut surfaces of the 22 grossly enlarged ovaries were predominantly solid in 5, solid-cystic in 10, and multicystic in 7. Microscopically, surface implants were observed in 80% of tumors, multinodular growth in 48%, and infiltrative stromal invasion (including microinvasionlike foci as it would be applied if the tumors were primary) in 86%. The neoplastic epithelium typically formed glands that ranged from small to large and cystically dilated, but small clusters of cells and individual cells were also seen. The epithelium ranged from tall, columnar, and mucinous in appearance to cuboidal or flattened and nonspecific. The tumors most closely mimicked primary mucinous neoplasms although a resemblance to other mullerian neoplasms was also seen. Foci often mimicked mucinous borderline tumors of typical type or with intraepithelial carcinoma and benign-appearing mucinous epithelium was seen in 62% of tumors. Immunohistochemical studies in 15 cases showed a positive reaction for cytokeratin 7 in all and for cytokeratin 20 in 5 cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma should be included in the list of origins of possible ovarian metastatic tumors that mimic primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia, particularly in parts of the world where cholangiocarcinoma of the liver is relatively common.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central01/2013; 16:44. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.44.787
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ABSTRACT: Urachal carcinoma is a rare tumor that is usually associated with a poor prognosis, especially the pathological type, urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma. Surgery remains the primary treatment in prolonging the overall survival time of patients. We report on a 41-year-old woman with urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma who underwent three surgeries and several courses of chemotherapy over a 42-month period. The first surgery, involving en-bloc excision of the urachal mass, partial urinary bladder, urachal ligament, and umbilicus was performed in May 2007. It is well known that the correct surgical scheme plays a key role in preventing recurrence or metastasis. However, a second debulking surgery with only a single salpingo-oophorectomy may have contributed directly to the patient's subsequent left ovarian metastasis. Therefore, we strongly recommend performing a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy once ovarian metastasis has been detected, even if the metastasis is only present on one side. Although postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, first with Taxol, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and cisplatin, and then with IFO, EPI, and mesna were consecutively administered after the first and second surgeries, they seemed less effective, since recurrence and metastasis occurred shortly after each surgical treatment. After a third debulking surgery in June 2009, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine were administered. This chemotherapy regimen was chosen based on an immunohistochemical test that involved the multidrug resistance gene; this test indicated that the urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma was resistant to the two chemotherapy regimens used previously. Surprisingly, the patient exhibited a marker response to the new regimen and the metastatic foci entered into a stable disease stage. However, the patient still died of diffuse metastatic disease 1.5 years later. During the whole period of treatment, we found that serum tumor markers including CA724, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA were elevated in a linear pattern, with parallel increases in line with peritoneal carcinomatosis and parallel reductions in line with response to personalized chemotherapy. Personalized treatment can be given to those patients who experience a poor response to initial therapy. Moreover, an immunohistochemical test for the multidrug resistance gene and serum tumor markers may supply key information in the choice of reasonable chemotherapeutics.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2013; 11(1):170. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-170 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastases to the ovary can be a challenging diagnostic dilemma as they often present similarly to a primary ovarian cancer, and there are many potential sites of origin. We present a case series of 5 patients with known cholangiocarcinoma recurrent in the ovary after completion of initial multimodality therapy including surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 09/2013; 32(6). DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3182782b9f · 1.63 Impact Factor