Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review.

Cochrane Vaccines Field, Alessandria, Italy.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 02/2008; 336(7635):77-80.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.
Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and controlled before and after studies.
Of 2300 titles scanned 138 full papers were retrieved, including 49 papers of 51 studies. Study quality was poor for the three randomised controlled trials and most of the cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis of most data except that from six case-control studies. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggest that the spread of respiratory viruses into the community can be prevented by intervening with hygienic measures aimed at younger children. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggests that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of SARS: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52); wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03); wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06); wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41); wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12); and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease the spread of respiratory disease remains uncertain. The lack of proper evaluation of global measures such as screening at entry ports and social distancing prevent firm conclusions being drawn.
Routine long term implementation of some physical measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult but many simple and low cost interventions could be useful in reducing the spread.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions may provide simple, low-cost, effective ways of minimising the transmission and impact of acute respiratory infections in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. Understanding what influences the uptake of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as hand and respiratory hygiene, mask wearing and social distancing could help to inform the development of effective public health advice messages. The aim of this synthesis was to explore public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions that aim to reduce the transmission of acute respiratory infections.
    BMC Public Health 06/2014; 14(1):589. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existed evidences show that airborne transmission of human respiratory droplets may be related with the spread of some infectious disease, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 pandemic. Non-pharmaceutical approaches, including ventilation system and personal protection, are believed to have certain positive effects on the reduction of co-occupant’s inhalation. This work then aims to numerically study the performances of mouth covering on co-occupant’s exposure under mixing ventilation (MV), under-floor air distribution (UFAD) and displacement ventilation (DV) system, using drift-flux model. Desk partition, as one generally employed arrangement in plan office, is also investigated under MV. The dispersion of 1, 5 and 10 μm droplet residuals are numerically calculated and CO2 is used to represent tracer gas. The results show that using mouth covering by the infected person can reduce the co-occupant’s inhalation greatly by interrupting direct spread of the expelled droplets, and best performance can be achieved under DV since the coughed air is mainly confined in the microenvironment of the infected person. The researches under MV show that the two interventions, mouth covering and desk partition, achieve almost the same inhalation for fine droplets while the inhalation of the co-occupant is lower when using mouth covering for large droplets.
    Journal of Central South University. 03/2012; 19(3).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh.DesignFrom May through October 2010, investigators identified both outpatients and inpatients at four tertiary hospitals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection through rRT-PCR. Research assistants visited case-patients' homes within 30 days of hospital visit/discharge and administered a structured questionnaire to capture direct medical costs (physician consultation, hospital bed, medicines and diagnostic tests), direct non-medical costs (food, lodging and travel) and indirect costs (case-patients' and caregivers' lost income). We used WHO-Choice estimates for routine healthcare service costs. We added direct, indirect and healthcare service costs to calculate cost-per-episode. We used median cost-per-episode, published influenza-associated outpatient and hospitalization rates and Bangladesh census data to estimate the annual economic burden of influenza-associated illnesses in 2010.ResultsWe interviewed 132 outpatients and 41 hospitalized patients. The median cost of an influenza-associated outpatient visit was US$4.80 (IQR = 2.93–8.11) and an influenza-associated hospitalization was US$82.20 (IQR = 59.96–121.56). We estimated that influenza-associated outpatient visits resulted in US$108 million (95% CI: 76–147) in direct costs and US$59 million (95% CI: 37–91) in indirect costs; influenza-associated hospitalizations resulted in US$1.4 million (95% CI: 0.4–2.6) in direct costs and US$0.4 million (95% CI: 0.1–0.8) in indirect costs in 2010.Conclusions In Bangladesh, influenza-associated illnesses caused an estimated US$169 million in economic loss in 2010, largely driven by frequent but low-cost outpatient visits.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 04/2014; · 1.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014