Effect of combining nisin and/or lysozyme with in-package pasteurization on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat turkey bologna.
ABSTRACT Achieving a targeted lethality with minimum exposure to heat and preservation of product quality during pasteurization is a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nisin and/or lysozyme in combination with in-package pasteurization of a ready-to-eat low-fat turkey bologna on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes. Sterile bologna samples were initially treated with solutions of nisin (2 mg/ml = 5,000 AU/ml = 31.25 AU/cm2), lysozyme (10 mg/ml = 80 AU/ml = 0.5 AU/cm2), and a mixture of nisin and lysozyme (2 mg/ml nisin + 10 mg/ml lysozyme = 31.75 AU/cm2). Bologna surfaces were uniformly inoculated with a Listeria suspension resulting in a population of approximately 0.5 log CFU/cm2. Samples were vacuum packaged and subjected to heat treatment (60, 62.5, or 65 degrees C). Two nonlinear models (Weibull and log logistic) were used to analyze the data. From the model parameters, the time needed to achieve a 4-log reduction was calculated. The nisin-lysozyme combination and nisin treatments were effective in reducing the time required for 4-log reductions at 62.5 and 65 degrees C but not at 60 degrees C. At 62.5 degrees C, nisin-lysozyme-treated samples required 23% less time than did the control sample to achieve a 4-log reduction and 31% less time at 65 degrees C. Lysozyme alone did not enhance antilisterial activity with heat. Results from this study can be useful to the industry for developing an efficient intervention strategy against contamination of ready-to-eat meat products by L. monocytogenes.
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ABSTRACT: The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60 degrees C), sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SD; 0-0.25%) and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were studied and a predictive inactivation model was developed. Bologna was manufactured with different SL/SD concentrations in the formulation, dipped in pediocin solution and treated at different temperatures using combinations of parameters determined by central composite design. D-values were calculated and analyzed using second order response regression. Predicted D-values were also calculated. The observed D-values for L. monocytogenes on bologna ranged from 2.10 to 35.59 min. Temperature alone decreased predicted D-values from 99.02 min at 56.3 degrees C to 44.71 min at 60.0 degrees C. Adding SL decreased D-values (85.43-22.71 min) further; however, heat and SD combined was the most effective for reducing L. monocytogenes on bologna. An SD level of 0.25% at 58.2 degrees C had the overall lowest predicted D-value (15.95 min). Combination treatments increased or decreased D-values, depending on the temperature. Pediocin (2500 and 5000 AU) and heat decreased D-values, but exhibited a protective effect at higher concentrations (>or=7500 AU). The results showed that interactions between additives in formulations can vary at different temperatures/concentrations, thereby affecting thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens in meat products. Hence, food processors should modify food formulations carefully, and verify with adequate testing so that product safety is not compromised.Food Microbiology 02/2010; 27(1):64-9. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 10(7) CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 25:1 and 16:1, respectively, were compared in this study. In the optimal compost mix, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 72, 48, and 24 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 72, 24, and 24 h with 50% moisture at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively, following 2 days of come-up time (rate of heating up). However, in the suboptimal compost mix, the pathogen survived for 288, 72, and 48 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 240, 72, 24 h in compost with 50% moisture at the same temperatures, respectively. Pathogen survival was longer, with 5 days of come-up time compared with 2 days of come-up. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated faster in the compost with 50% moisture than in the compost with 40% at 55 and 60°C. Both moisture and come-up time were significant factors affecting Weibull model parameters. Our results suggest that slow come-up time at the beginning of composting can extend pathogen survival during composting. Additionally, both the C/N ratio and the initial moisture level in the compost mix affect the rate of pathogen inactivation as well.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2011; 77(12):4126-35. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5, a strain isolated from fermented mustard with a broad range of inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the peptide plantaricin ZJ5 (PZJ5), which is an extreme pH and heat-stable. However, it can be digested by pepsin and proteinase K. This peptide has strong activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PZJ5 has been purified using a multi-step process, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interactions and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was found to be 2572.9 Da using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The primary structure of this peptide was determined using amino acid sequencing and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that the DNA sequence translated as a 44-residue precursor containing a 22-amino-acid N-terminal extension that was of the double-glycine type. The bacteriocin sequence exhibited no homology with known bacteriocins when compared with those available in the database, indicating that it was a new class IId bacteriocin. PZJ5 from a food-borne strain may be useful as a promising probiotic candidate.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105549. · 3.53 Impact Factor