Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.
ABSTRACT The independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force), which directs the development of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide), conducted a systematic review of published scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laws and policies that facilitate the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system to determine whether these transfers prevent or reduce violence among youth who have been transferred and among the juvenile population as a whole. For this review, transfer is defined as placing juveniles aged <18 years under the jurisdiction of the adult criminal justice system. The review followed Community Guide methods for conducting a systematic review of literature and for providing recommendations to public health decision makers. Available evidence indicates that transfer to the adult criminal justice system typically increases rather than decreases rates of violence among transferred youth. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of transfer laws and policies on levels of violent crime in the overall juvenile population. On the basis of these findings, the Task Force recommends against laws or policies facilitating the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for the purpose of reducing violence.
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ABSTRACT: Background The risk of anal cancer is substantially increased in HIV-infected individuals. Thus, the HIV epidemic may have influenced the increasing anal cancer trends in the United States. We estimated the impact of the HIV epidemic on trends in anal cancer incidence in the United States during 1980-2005. Methods Data on anal cancer cases with and without AIDS were obtained from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study. The number of HIV-infected anal cancer cases without AIDS was estimated from the number of anal cancers occurring before diagnosis of AIDS. The proportion of anal cancer cases with HIV infection in the general population was calculated. We estimated temporal trends in the incidence rates of anal cancer in the general population overall and after exclusion of HIV-infected cancer cases by calculating annual percent changes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a Joinpoint log-linear model. All incidence rates were standardized to the 2000 US population by age, sex, and race. Results During 1980-2005, of the 20 533 estimated anal cancer cases, 1665 (8.1%) were HIV-infected. During 2001-2005, the proportion of anal cancer cases with HIV infection was the highest-1.2% (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.4%) among females and 28.4% (95% CI = 26.6 to 29.4%) among males. During 1980-2005, HIV infection did not have an impact on the trends in anal cancer among females (incidence rates increased by 3.3% [95% CI = 3.0 to 3.7%] annually overall, and by 3.3% [95% CI = 2.9 to 3.6%] annually without HIV-infected anal cancer cases) but had a strong impact on the trends in anal cancer among males (incidence rates increased by 3.4% [95% CI = 2.9 to 3.9%] annually overall, and by 1.7% [95% CI = 1.2 to 2.3%] annually without HIV infection). Conclusion During 1980-2005, the increasing anal cancer incidence rates in the United States were strongly influenced by the HIV epidemic in males but were independent of HIV infection in females.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2012; 104(20):1591-8. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lead ion (Pb(2+)) is one of the most hazardous heavy metals to almost all life forms. The components of store-operated Ca(2+) entry as a molecular gateway have been previously found to participate in the cytotoxic entry of Pb(2+). However, the safe levels of intracellular Pb(2+) hiding in blood Pb(2+) levels are still not determined with full certainty. The present study aimed to construct protein-based Pb(2+) indicators to help establish a reliable setting for the content monitoring of intracellular Pb(2+). A series of Pb(2+) indicators based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, Met-leads, were developed. The Pb(2+)-binding protein PbrR (from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34) was applied between the fluorescent protein pair ECFP(ΔC11) and cp173Venus. The spectral patterns and sensing ranges of all Met-leads were characterized in vitro. Among these constructs, Met-lead 1.59 had relatively high ion selectivity and broad dynamic range (3.3-5.7). Consequently, this Met-lead was adopted in the cellular Pb(2+) biosensing. The intracellular Pb(2+) content in human embryonic kidney cells was successfully monitored using Met-lead 1.59 under both short- and long-term treatments. The existence of intracellular Pb(2+) can be significantly sensed using Met-lead 1.59 after 3 h 0.5μM (10 μg/dl) exposure, which is 200 times more improved than previous live-cell indicators. In summary, a new Pb(2+) indicator, Met-lead 1.59, was successfully developed for advanced research on Pb(2+) toxicology.Toxicological Sciences 01/2012; 126(2):436-45. · 4.33 Impact Factor
Article: Varicella vaccines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus infection (VZV) is widespread and clinically important as the cause of varicella pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis (a complication of primary infection/zoster) and post-herpetic neuralgia (a complication of zoster/secondary infection). The use of live-attenuated varicella vaccine to reduce the burden of these diseases has been established in many countries for a number of years. Original papers and review articles including guidelines and recommendations by the American Academy of Paediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and EuroSurveillance. Immunoassay of VZV IgG by enzyme immunosorbent assay is used as a surrogate marker for previous primary infection or successful immunization. Patients who have had natural primary infection do not require vaccination against varicella. Live VZV vaccines are safe and effective at protecting against disease caused by VZV. To ensure long-term protection, a two-dose immunization regime is strongly recommended, due to significant waning of protection following a single dose. Universal two-dose immunization has been shown to be cost-effective in Western temperate countries. In many countries, routine vaccination of children is recommended but, due to cost, often not provided by universal programmes. Cost-effectiveness of a universal programme will be determined by the baseline rate of severe varicella disease. No international consensus exists: measurement of VZV immunity or cost-effectiveness of introducing VZV vaccination to a country. Decisive factors will include the pre-vaccination burden of VZV-associated disease.British Medical Bulletin 08/2012; 103:115-27. · 4.36 Impact Factor