Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.
ABSTRACT The independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force), which directs the development of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide), conducted a systematic review of published scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laws and policies that facilitate the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system to determine whether these transfers prevent or reduce violence among youth who have been transferred and among the juvenile population as a whole. For this review, transfer is defined as placing juveniles aged <18 years under the jurisdiction of the adult criminal justice system. The review followed Community Guide methods for conducting a systematic review of literature and for providing recommendations to public health decision makers. Available evidence indicates that transfer to the adult criminal justice system typically increases rather than decreases rates of violence among transferred youth. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of transfer laws and policies on levels of violent crime in the overall juvenile population. On the basis of these findings, the Task Force recommends against laws or policies facilitating the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for the purpose of reducing violence.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine whether an automated hospital-based influenza vaccination screening program leveraging the electronic medical record (EMR) increases vaccination rates. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all children ≥6 months old admitted to medical, surgical, rehabilitation, or psychiatry services during influenza seasons between 2003 and 2012 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We compared influenza vaccination rates before (preintervention phase) and after (intervention phase) the introduction of an automated EMR intervention that utilized a nursing-based electronic screening tool to determine eligibility for influenza vaccine and facilitated vaccine ordering without requiring involvement of a physician or other provider. Overall, 42 716 (72.8%) of the 58,648 subjects admitted during the study period met inclusion criteria. The intervention phase included 20,651 admissions, of which 11 194 (54.2%) were screened. Screening increased significantly over time in the intervention phase (19.8%-77.1%; P < .001). In-hospital influenza vaccination rates increased from a mean of 2.1% (n = 472) of all subjects preintervention phase to 8.0% (n = 1645) in the intervention phase (odds ratio = 6.8; 95% confidence interval, 6.14-7.47). Of the 11 194 screened subjects, 5505 (49.2%) were found to have already been vaccinated at the time of screening. The screening process identified 478 (4.3%) subjects who were unable to receive vaccine for medical reasons, and an additional 2865 (25.6%) whose caregiver refused the vaccine. An automated, hospital-based influenza vaccination program integrated into the EMR can increase vaccinations of hospitalized patients and provide insight into the vaccination history and declination reasons for children not receiving the vaccine.Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 03/2014; 3(1):7-14.
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ABSTRACT: School-based victimization has short- and long-term implications for the health and academic lives of sexual minority students. This analysis assessed the prevalence and relative risk of school violence and bullying among sexual minority and heterosexual high school students. Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 10 states and 10 large urban school districts that assessed sexual identity and had weighted data in the 2009 and/or 2011 cycle were combined to create two large population-based data sets, one containing state data and one containing district data. Prevalence of physical fighting, being threatened or injured with a weapon, weapon carrying, and being bullied on school property and not going to school because of safety concerns was calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. In the state data, sexual minority male students were at greater risk for being threatened or injured with a weapon, not going to school because of safety concerns and being bullied than heterosexual male students. Sexual minority female students were at greater risk than heterosexual female students for all five behaviors. In the district data, with one exception, sexual minority male and female students were at greater risk for all five behaviors than heterosexual students. Sexual minority students still routinely experience more school victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. The implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based programs and policies has the ability to reduce school violence and bullying, especially among sexual minority students.Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2014; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Obesity is of increasing concern especially among firefighters. Bias in self-reported body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) has received a great deal of attention given its importance in epidemiological field research on obesity.AimsTo determine the validity of self-reported weight, height and BMI and identify potential sources of bias in a national sample of US firefighters.Methods Self-reported and measured weight and height (and BMI derived from them) were assessed in a national sample of 1001 career male firefighters in the USA and errors in self-reported data were determined.ResultsThere were 1001 participants. Self-reported weight, height and BMI were significantly correlated with their respective measured counterparts, i.e. measured weight (r = 0.990; P < 0.001), height (r = 0.961; P < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.976; P < 0.001). The overall mean difference and standard deviation between self-reported weight, height and BMI were 1.3±2.0kg, 0.94±1.9cm and 0.09±0.9kg/m(2), respectively, for male firefighters. BMI-based weight status (P < 0.001) was the most consistent factor associated with bias in self-reported BMI, weight and height, with heavier firefighters more likely to underestimate their weight and overestimate their height, resulting in underestimated BMIs. Therefore, using self-reported BMI would have resulted in overestimating the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0) by 1.8%, but underestimating the prevalence of more serious levels of obesity (Class II and III) by 1.2%.Conclusions Self-reported weight and height (and the resulting BMI) were highly correlated with measured values. A primary and consistent source of error in self-reported weight, height and BMI based on those indices was BMI-based weight status.Occupational Medicine 04/2014; · 1.45 Impact Factor