Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

Division of Health Communications, National Center for Health Marketing, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, MS E-69, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 12/2007; 56(RR-9):1-11.
Source: PubMed


The independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force), which directs the development of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide), conducted a systematic review of published scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laws and policies that facilitate the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system to determine whether these transfers prevent or reduce violence among youth who have been transferred and among the juvenile population as a whole. For this review, transfer is defined as placing juveniles aged <18 years under the jurisdiction of the adult criminal justice system. The review followed Community Guide methods for conducting a systematic review of literature and for providing recommendations to public health decision makers. Available evidence indicates that transfer to the adult criminal justice system typically increases rather than decreases rates of violence among transferred youth. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of transfer laws and policies on levels of violent crime in the overall juvenile population. On the basis of these findings, the Task Force recommends against laws or policies facilitating the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system for the purpose of reducing violence.


Available from: Eve K Moscicki, Aug 18, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: • Based on strong research evidence, children in group settings may reflect or cause outbreaks of infectious diseases within their community. (3)(4)(7)(17) • Based on strong research evidence, preventive measures have been demonstrated to decrease significantly the occurrence of infections in schools and child-care facilities. These measures include universal vaccination and meticulous attention to standard precautions (especially hand hygiene). (3)(8)(9)(20) • In addition to preventive measures, based on some research evidence, postexposure interventions have proven to interrupt infection risks to susceptible children, staff, and their contacts. The necessary postexposure actions are based on the individual infectious agent, hosts' susceptibilities, and group and community settings and may involve active or passive immunizations, antibiotic prophylaxis or treatment, cohorting of ill individuals, or exclusion from the group. (3)(4)(7)(8)(10) • Everyone involved in the care of children has a role in assuring that child care and school attendance pose as few health risks as possible. Copyright © 2009 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.
    Pediatrics in Review 08/2009; 30(7):259-69. DOI:10.1542/pir.30-7-259 · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oseltamivir and zanamivir are currently licensed worldwide for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis. Both drugs require twice-daily administration for 5 days for treatment. A new influenza drug, laninamivir (code name R-125489), and its prodrug form, CS-8958 (laninamivir octanoate or laninamivir prodrug), which are long-acting neuraminidase inhibitors, are introduced in this review. Laninamivir potently inhibited the neuraminidase activities of various influenza A and B viruses, including subtypes N1-N9, pandemic (2009) H1N1 virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses and oseltamivir-resistant viruses. Because of the long retention of laninamivir in mouse lungs after an intranasal administration of CS-8958, therapeutic administration of a single dose of CS-8958 showed superior efficacy to repeated administrations of zanamivir or oseltamivir in animal infection models for influenza A and B viruses. These include pandemic (2009) H1N1 virus and HPAI H5N1 virus. Prophylactic single administration of CS-8958, as early as 7 days prior to infection, also showed superior efficacy. Finally, the potential of a single inhalation of CS-8958 for influenza patients was demonstrated by clinical studies, and CS-8958 has been approved and is commercially available as Inavir(®) (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, Tokyo) in Japan.
    Antiviral chemistry & chemotherapy 12/2010; 21(2):71-84. DOI:10.3851/IMP1688
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: No systematic studies have been carried out on the effects of toxic metals on childhood behavior in the Gulf Region including the UAE. The relationship between blood levels of heavy metals and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored in school-aged children of UAE and it was found that increased blood concentrations of lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were significantly associated with ADHD. The findings suggest that monitoring for exposure to heavy metal levels and education on potential child health hazards related to them are indicated.
    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 02/2011; 57(6):457-60. DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmq121 · 1.26 Impact Factor
Show more