Influence of carbohydrate, intense exercise, and rest intervals on hormonal and oxidative changes.
ABSTRACT This study compared effects of carbohydrate (CHO) and rest on oxidative stress during exercise. Cyclists (N = 12) completed 4 randomized trials at 64% Wattsmax under 2 conditions (continuous cycling for 2 h [C] and cycling with 3-min rest every 10 min for 2.6 h [R]). Subjects cycled under each condition while receiving 6% CHO and placebo (PLA). CHO and PLA were given preexercise (12 mL/kg) and during exercise (4 mL x kg(-1) x 15 min(-1)). Blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 1 h postexercise and assayed for F2-isoprostanes, hydroperoxides (LH), nitrite, antioxidant capacity, glucose, insulin, cortisol, and epinephrine. F2-isoprostanes and LH were lower in CHO. Glucose, cortisol, and epinephrine exhibited significant effects, with postexercise levels of glucose higher and cortisol and epinephrine lower in CHO during the R condition. This pattern was identical in the C condition (21). Oxidative stress during cycling was unaffected by use of short rest intervals but was diminished by CHO.
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that carbohydrate (CHO) administration increases performance during prolonged exercise in humans and animals. The mechanism(s), which could mediate the improvement in exercise performance associated with CHO administration, however, remain(s) unclear. This review focuses on possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the increase in exercise performance observed with the administration of CHO during prolonged muscle contractions in humans and animals. The beneficial effect of CHO ingestion on performance during prolonged exercise could be due to several factors including (i) an attenuation in central fatigue; (ii) a better maintenance of CHO oxidation rates; (iii) muscle glycogen sparing; (iv) changes in muscle metabolite levels; (v) reduced exercise-induced strain; and (vi) a better maintenance of excitation-contraction coupling. In general, the literature indicates that CHO ingestion during exercise does not reduce the utilization of muscle glycogen. In addition, data from a meta-analysis suggest that a dose-dependent relationship was not shown between CHO ingestion during exercise and an increase in performance. This could support the idea that providing enough CHO to maintain CHO oxidation during exercise may not always be associated with an increase in performance. Emerging evidence from the literature shows that increasing neural drive and attenuating central fatigue may play an important role in increasing performance during exercise with CHO supplementation. In addition, CHO administration during exercise appears to provide protection from disrupted cell homeostasis/integrity, which could translate into better muscle function and an increase in performance. Finally, it appears that during prolonged exercise when the ability of metabolism to match energy demand is exceeded, adjustments seem to be made in the activity of the Na+/K+ pump. Therefore, muscle fatigue could be acting as a protective mechanism during prolonged contractions. This could be alleviated when CHO is administered resulting in the better maintenance of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre membrane. The mechanism(s) by which CHO administration increases performance during prolonged exercise is(are) complex, likely involving multiple factors acting at numerous cellular sites. In addition, due to the large variation in types of exercise, durations, intensities, feeding schedules and CHO types it is difficult to assess if the mechanism(s) that could explain the increase in performance with CHO administration during exercise is(are) similar in different situations. Experiments concerning the identification of potential mechanism(s) by which performance is increased with CHO administration during exercise will add to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of muscle/central fatigue. This knowledge could have significant implications for improving exercise performance.Sports Medicine 09/2010; 40(9):747-63. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The level of F₂-isoprostanes (F₂-IsoP) in blood or urine is widely regarded as the reference marker for the assessment of oxidative stress. As a result, nowadays, F₂-IsoP is the most frequently measured oxidative stress marker. Nevertheless, determining F₂-IsoP is a challenging task and the measurement is neither free of mishaps nor straightforward. This review presents for the first time the effect of acute and chronic exercise on F₂-IsoP levels in plasma, urine and skeletal muscle, placing emphasis on the origin, the methodological caveats and the interpretation of F₂-IsoP alterations. From data analysis, the following effects of exercise have emerged: (i) acute exercise clearly increases F₂-IsoP levels in plasma and this effect is generally short-lived, (ii) acute exercise and increased contractile activity markedly increase F₂-IsoP levels in skeletal muscle, (iii) chronic exercise exhibits trend for decreased F₂-IsoP levels in urine but further research is needed. Theoretically, it seems that significant amounts of F₂-IsoP can be produced not only from phospholipids but from neutral lipids as well. The origin of F₂-IsoP detected in plasma and urine (as done by almost all studies in humans) remains controversial, as a multitude of tissues (including skeletal muscle and plasma) can independently produce F₂-IsoP.Progress in lipid research 10/2010; 50(1):89-103. · 10.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate supplementation is a popular nutritional practice used in tennis to enhance physical capacities, motor-skill performance, and delay fatigue. However, the effects of carbohydrate supplementation on physiological and perceptual responses during tennis match play are not established. This double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was designed to determine the influence of carbohydrate supplementation (0.5g•kg•h) on glycemia, salivary hormones (cortisol and testosterone) concentration, salivary IgA concentration and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during 3 h of tennis match play in 12 well trained tennis players. The only significant difference between the two conditions was a lower salivary cortisol concentration post-match in the carbohydrate trial (p<0.05); however, there was a trend for higher glucose concentration (p = 0.06) and lower session-RPE (p = 0.08) following tennis match play in the carbohydrate condition, which may have some practical implications. There was no change in salivary testosterone, salivary IgA and RPE responses during tennis match play between conditions (p>0.05). These data indicate that carbohydrate ingestion during 3 h of competitive tennis match play helps to maintain glycemia and attenuates the increase in salivary cortisol concentration compared to placebo.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 07/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor