Intratumoral IGF-I protein expression is selectively upregulated in breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.
ABSTRACT BRCA1/2 mutations predispose to early onset breast and ovarian cancers. The phenotypic expression of mutant alleles, however, is thought to be modified by factors that are also involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic breast cancer. One such protein is IGF-I, one of the strongest mitogens to breast cancer cells in vitro. We have utilized immunohistochemistry to compare the intratumoral IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) protein expression in 57 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 102 matched breast cancer patients without a family history in a nested case-control study. BRCA1 silencing by siRNA was used to investigate the effect of BRCA mutations on IGF-I protein expression. IGF-I protein expression was detected in tumoral epithelium and surrounding stroma, and was significantly upregulated in tumors of BRCA mutation carriers when compared with matched sporadic tumors (epithelial: 87.7% vs 61.8%, P=0.001; stromal: 73.7% vs 34.3%, P<0.001). By contrast, IGF-IR protein expression was confined to malignant epithelium and was unchanged in mutation carriers (52.6% vs 39.2%, P=0.310). While in mutation carriers IGF-IR protein expression was significantly correlated with both epithelial (P=0.003) and stromal IGF-I (P=0.02), this association was less pronounced in sporadic breast cancer (P=0.02 respectively). siRNA-mediated downregulation of BRCA1 in primary human mammary gland cells triggered upregulation of endogenous intracellular IGF-I in vitro. The increased intratumoral IGF-I protein expression in BRCA mutation carriers suggests an involvement of the IGF-I/IGF-IR axis in the biological behavior of breast cancers in this population and could define a potential therapeutic target.
Article: BRCA1 negatively regulates IGF-1 expression through an estrogen-responsive element-like site.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is critical for both normal mammary gland development and malignant transformation. It has been reported that the IGF-1 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation and is upregulated in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations. We report here that IGF-1 is negatively regulated by BRCA1 at the transcriptional level in human breast cancer cells. BRCA1 knockdown (BRCA1-KD) induces the expression of IGF-1 mRNA in MCF7 cells in an estrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent manner. We found that both BRCA1 and ERα bind to the endogenous IGF-1 promoter region containing an estrogen-responsive element-like (EREL) site. BRCA1-KD does not significantly affect ERα binding on the IGF-1 promoter. Reporter analysis demonstrates that BRCA1 could regulate IGF-1 transcripts via this EREL site. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that de-repression of IGF-1 transcription by BRCA1-KD increases the level of extracellular IGF-1 protein, and secreted IGF-1 seems to increase the phospho-IGF-1Rβ and activate its downstream signaling pathway. Blocking the IGF-1/IGF-1R/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway either by a neutralizing antibody or by small-molecule inhibitors preferentially reduces the proliferation of BRCA1-KD cells. Furthermore, the IGF-1-EREL-Luc reporter assay demonstrates that various inhibitors, which can inhibit the IGF-1R pathway, can suppress this reporter activity. These findings suggest that BRCA1 defectiveness keeps turning on IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling, which significantly contributes to increase cell survival and proliferation.Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e336. · 5.33 Impact Factor
Article: BMS-536924 sensitizes human epithelial ovarian cancer cells to the PARP inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the anti-neoplastic activity of BMS-536924, an IGF-1R inhibitor, in epithelial ovarian cancer and its capacity to potentiate the effect of a PARP inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide. OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4, SKOV-3 and TOV-81D cell lines were investigated in low-serum tissue culture conditions (1%FBS). Cytotoxicity assays were performed in quadruplicates using the Alamar colorimetric assay in the presence of BMS-536924 and/or 3-aminobenzamide. The levels of phospho-AKT, phospho-S6, PARP-1 and phospho-H2AX were evaluated by western blotting in the presence of BMS-536924. BMS-536924 induced a time and dose inhibitory effect on cell survival. This effect seemed to be mediated by a reduction of pAKT and pS6 in a dose-dependent manner. The drug also provoked cell death by apoptosis as suggested by the increase in PARP-1 cleavage. It also induces DNA damage as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of histone H2AX and the augmentation of the comet tail moment. Finally, BMS-536924 sensitized cells to the effect of the PARP inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide. Our study reinforces the concept that IGF-1R is a good therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. Moreover, it suggests that combination therapy using BMS-536924 with a PARP inhibitor might be an effective strategy to circumvent resistance to treatment in clinical settings.Gynecologic Oncology 09/2009; 115(2):193-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison of radioimmuno and carbon nanotube field-effect transistor assays for measuring insulin-like growth factor-1 in a preclinical model of human breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To realize the promise of personalized medicine, diagnostic instruments used for detecting and measuring biomarkers must become smaller, faster and less expensive. Although most techniques used currently to detect biomarkers are sensitive and specific, many suffer from several disadvantages including their complexity, high cost and long turnaround time. One strategy to overcome these problems is to exploit carbon nanotube (CNT) based biosensors, which are sensitive, use inexpensive disposable components and can be easily adapted to current assay protocols. In this study we investigated the applicability of using a CNT field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) as a diagnostic instrument for measuring cancer biomarkers in serum using a mouse model of Breast Cancer Susceptibility 1-related breast cancer. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was chosen because it is highly relevant in breast cancer and because measuring serum IGF-1 levels by conventional methods is complicated due to specific IGF-1 serum binding proteins. Our results show that there is good correlation between the two platforms with respect to detecting serum IGF-1. In fact, the CNT-FETs required only one antibody, gave real-time results and required approximately 100-fold less mouse serum than the radioimmunoassay. Both IGF-1 radioimmuno and CNT-FET assays gave comparable results. Indeed, the CNT-FET assay was simpler and faster than the radioimmunoassay. Additionally, the low serum sample required by CNT-FETs can be especially advantageous for studies constricted by limited amount of human clinical samples and for mouse studies, since animals often need to be sacrificed to obtain enough serum for biomarker evaluation.Journal of Nanobiotechnology 09/2011; 9:36. · 5.09 Impact Factor