The roles of thiol-derived radicals in the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH2) is one of the most widely used probes for detecting intracellular oxidative stress, but requires a catalyst to be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide or superoxide and reacts nonspecifically with oxidizing radicals. Thiyl radicals are produced when many radicals are "repaired" by thiols, but are oxidizing agents and thus potentially capable of oxidizing DCFH2. The aim of this study was to investigate the reactivity of thiol-derived radicals toward DCFH2 and its oxidized, fluorescent form 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Thiyl radicals derived from oxidation of glutathione (GSH) or cysteine (CysSH) oxidized DCFH2 with rate constants at pH 7.4 of approximately 4 or approximately 2x10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Both the rates of oxidation and the yields of DCF were pH-dependent. Glutathione-derived radicals interacted with DCF, resulting in the formation of DCFH* absorbing at 390 nm and loss of fluorescence; in contrast, cysteine-derived radicals did not cause any depletion of DCF fluorescence. We postulate that the observed apparent difference in reactivity between GS* and CysS* toward DCF is related to the formation of carbon-centered, reducing radicals from base-catalyzed isomerization of GS*. DCF formation from interaction of DCFH2 with GS* was inhibited by oxygen in a concentration-dependent manner over the physiological range. These data indicate that in applying DCFH2 to measure oxidizing radicals in biological systems, we have to consider not only the initial competition between thiols and DCFH2 for the oxidizing radicals, but also subsequent reactions of thiol-derived radicals, together with variables--including pH and oxygen concentration--which control thiyl radical chemistry.
Article: "ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis"--a critical commentary.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a recent publication (K. Ishikawa et al., 2008, Science320, 661-664), the authors described how replacing the endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in a weakly metastatic mouse tumor cell line with mtDNA from a highly metastatic cell line enhanced tumor progression through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The authors attributed the transformation from a low-metastatic cell line to a high-metastatic phenotype to overproduction of ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) caused by a dysfunction in mitochondrial complex I protein encoded by mtDNA transferred from the highly metastatic tumor cell line. In this critical evaluation, using the paper by Ishikawa et al. as an example, we bring to the attention of researchers in the free radical field how the failure to appreciate the complexities of dye chemistry could potentially lead to pitfalls, misinterpretations, and erroneous conclusions concerning ROS involvement. Herein we make a case that the authors have failed to show evidence for formation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, presumed to be generated from complex I deficiency associated with mtDNA mutations in metastatic cells.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 09/2008; 45(9):1217-9. · 5.42 Impact Factor