Antioxidant Vitamin Supplement Use and Risk of Dementia or Alzheimer's Disease in Older Adults

School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2008; 56(2):291-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01531.x
Source: PubMed


To examine whether use of vitamins C or E alone or in combination was associated with lower incidence of dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Prospective cohort study.
Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington.
Two thousand nine hundred sixty-nine participants aged 65 and older without cognitive impairment at baseline in the Adult Changes in Thought study.
Participants were followed biennially to identify incident dementia and AD diagnosed according to standard criteria. Participants were considered to be users of vitamins C or E if they self-reported use for at least 1 week during the month before baseline.
Over a mean follow-up+/-standard deviation of 5.5+/-2.7 years, 405 subjects developed dementia (289 developed AD). The use of vitamin E was not associated with dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.77-1.25) or with AD (HR=1.04; 95% CI=0.78-1.39). No association was found between vitamin C alone (dementia: HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.71-1.13; AD: HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.72-1.25) or concurrent use of vitamin C and E (dementia: HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.72-1.20; AD: HR=1.00, 95% CI=0.73-1.35) and either outcome.
In this study, the use of supplemental vitamin E and C, alone or in combination, did not reduce risk of AD or overall dementia over 5.5 years of follow-up.

2 Reads
  • Source
    • "It is actually g-tocopherol that constitutes much of the vitamin E content in the U.S. food supply [20]. The vast majority of studies do not show cognitive benefit from supplements of a-tocopherol [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]. Recent completion of several randomized, controlled trials [22] [23] [28], all with negative results for a beneficial effect of high-dose a-tocopherol on cognitive decline, cast doubt in the scientific community on the potential beneficial effects of vitamin E. However, there are several aspects regarding the design of these randomized trials that may have resulted in the negative findings [29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Randomized trials of α-tocopherol supplements on cognitive decline are negative, whereas studies of dietary tocopherols have shown benefit. We investigated these inconsistencies by analyzing the relations of α- and γ-tocopherol brain concentrations to Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology among 115 deceased participants of the prospective Rush Memory and Aging Project. Associations of amyloid load and neurofibrillary tangle severity with brain tocopherol concentrations were examined in separate adjusted linear regression models. γ-Tocopherol concentrations were associated with lower amyloid load (β = ‒2.10, P = .002) and lower neurofibrillary tangle severity (β = ‒1.16, P = .02). Concentrations of α-tocopherol were not associated with AD neuropathology, except as modified by γ-tocopherol: high α-tocopherol was associated with higher amyloid load when γ-tocopherol levels were low and with lower amyloid levels when γ-tocopherol levels were high (P for interaction = 0.03). Brain concentrations of γ- and α-tocopherols may be associated with AD neuropathology in interrelated, complex ways. Randomized trials should consider the contribution of γ-tocopherol.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 02/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.12.015 · 12.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Interestingly, there was no reduction in AD risk with isolated vitamin E or C intake or with multivitamins, which may be justified by the dependence between these vitamins in scavenging ROS.47 These observations were different from those reported in the Adult Changes in Thought study, which showed no effect of the supplemental use of vitamins E or C on reducing the risk of dementia or AD for over 5 years of follow-up time.48 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and it generally affects the elderly. It has been suggested that diet is an intensively modifiable lifestyle factor that might reduce the risk of AD. Because epidemiological studies generally report the potential neuronal protective effects of various micronutrients, the aim of this study was to perform a literature review on the major nutrients that are related to AD, including selenium, vitamins C and E, transition metals, vitamin D, B-complex vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acids.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 05/2013; 8:531-42. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S27983 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These findings suggest that AA and vitamin E supplementation may have some synergistic effects in reducing risk for AD. Gray et al. [35] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This narrative review appraises the human and animal studies implicating ascorbic acid (AA) in normal cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease. A research framework for how nutrition affects brain aging is proposed with emphasis on AA intake, status, metabolism, and transport into brain tissue. A final synopsis highlights areas for future research regarding AA nourishment and healthy brain aging.
    BioFactors 03/2012; 38(2):114-22. DOI:10.1002/biof.1002 · 4.59 Impact Factor
Show more