Article

# Comparison of probabilistic Boolean network and dynamic Bayesian network approaches for inferring gene regulatory networks.

School of Computing, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA.

BMC Bioinformatics (Impact Factor: 3.02). 02/2007; 8 Suppl 7:S13. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-S7-S13 Source: DBLP

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**ABSTRACT:**The development of accurate and reliable dynamical modeling procedures that describe the time evolution of gene expression levels is a prerequisite to understanding and controlling the transcription process. We focused on data from DNA microarray time series for 20 Drosophila genes involved in muscle development during the embryonic stage. Genes with similar expression profiles were clustered on the basis of a translation-invariant and scale-invariant distance measure. The time evolution of these clusters was modeled using coupled differential equations. Three model structures involving a transcription term and a degradation term were tested. The parameters were identified in successive steps: network construction, parameter optimization, and parameter reduction. The solutions were evaluated on the basis of the data reproduction and the number of parameters, as well as on two biology-based requirements: the robustness with respect to parameter variations and the values of the expression levels not being unrealistically large upon extrapolation in time. Various solutions were obtained that satisfied all our evaluation criteria. The regulatory networks inferred from these solutions were compared with experimental data. The best solution has half of the experimental connections, which compares favorably with previous approaches. Biasing the network toward the experimental connections led to the identification of a model that is only slightly less good on the basis of the evaluation criteria. The non-uniqueness of the solutions and the variable agreement with experimental connections were discussed in the context of the different hypotheses underlying this type of approach.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90285. · 3.53 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Background Dynamic aspects of gene regulatory networks are typically investigated by measuring system variables at multiple time points. Current state-of-the-art computational approaches for reconstructing gene networks directly build on such data, making a strong assumption that the system evolves in a synchronous fashion at fixed points in time. However, nowadays omics data are being generated with increasing time course granularity. Thus, modellers now have the possibility to represent the system as evolving in continuous time and to improve the models¿ expressiveness.ResultsContinuous time Bayesian networks are proposed as a new approach for gene network reconstruction from time course expression data. Their performance was compared to two state-of-the-art methods: dynamic Bayesian networks and Granger causality analysis. On simulated data, the methods comparison was carried out for networks of increasing size, for measurements taken at different time granularity densities and for measurements unevenly spaced over time. Continuous time Bayesian networks outperformed the other methods in terms of the accuracy of regulatory interactions learnt from data for all network sizes. Furthermore, their performance degraded smoothly as the size of the network increased. Continuous time Bayesian networks were significantly better than dynamic Bayesian networks for all time granularities tested and better than Granger causality for dense time series. Both continuous time Bayesian networks and Granger causality performed robustly for unevenly spaced time series, with no significant loss of performance compared to the evenly spaced case, while the same did not hold true for dynamic Bayesian networks. The comparison included the IRMA experimental datasets which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. Continuous time Bayesian networks were then applied to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms controlling murine T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation and were found to be effective in discovering well-known regulatory mechanisms, as well as new plausible biological insights.Conclusions Continuous time Bayesian networks were effective on networks of both small and large size and were particularly feasible when the measurements were not evenly distributed over time. Reconstruction of the murine Th17 cell differentiation network using continuous time Bayesian networks revealed several autocrine loops, suggesting that Th17 cells may be auto regulating their own differentiation process.BMC Bioinformatics 12/2014; 15(1). · 3.02 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**In this paper, we present a Bayesian networks (BNs) ap-proach in order to infer the differentiation of the cytokine implication in different experimental conditions. We introduce an evolutionary method for BNs structure learning that maintains a set of the best learned net-works. Each of them will be tested by a statistic test with two popula-tions of patient data: one with treatment (drugs), other without treat-ment. The answer of question "how does the treatment influence to gene regulation?" is expected.

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