Article

An additional human chromosome 21 causes suppression of neural fate of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in a teratoma model

Centre for Haematology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts & The London, Queen Mary's School of Medicine, University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK.
BMC Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 2.75). 02/2007; 7:131. DOI: 10.1186/1471-213X-7-131
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21), is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Among complex phenotypes, it displays a number of neural pathologies including smaller brain size, reduced numbers of neurons, reduced dendritic spine density and plasticity, and early Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. Mouse models for DS show behavioural and cognitive defects, synaptic plasticity defects, and reduced hippocampal and cerebellar neuron numbers. Early postnatal development of both human and mouse-model DS shows the reduced capability of neuronal precursor cells to generate neurons. The exact molecular cause of this reduction, and the role played by increased dosage of individual HSA21 genes, remain unknown.
We have subcutaneously injected mouse pluripotent ES cells containing a single freely segregating supernumerary human chromosome 21 (HSA21) into syngeneic mice, to generate transchromosomic teratomas. Transchromosomic cells and parental control cells were injected into opposite flanks of thirty mice in three independent experiments. Tumours were grown for 30 days, a time-span equivalent to combined intra-uterine, and early post-natal mouse development. When paired teratomas from the same animals were compared, transchromosomic tumours showed a three-fold lower percentage of neuroectodermal tissue, as well as significantly reduced mRNA levels for neuron specific (Tubb3) and glia specific (Gfap) genes, relative to euploid controls. Two thirds of transchromosomic tumours also showed a lack of PCR amplification with multiple primers specific for HSA21, which were present in the ES cells at the point of injection, thus restricting a commonly retained trisomy to less than a third of HSA21 genes.
We demonstrate that a supernumerary chromosome 21 causes Inhibition of Neuroectodermal DIfferentiation (INDI) of pluripotent ES cells. The data suggest that trisomy of less than a third of HSA21 genes, in two chromosomal regions, might be sufficient to cause this effect.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sebastian Brandner, Jun 23, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
120 Views
  • Source
    Genetics and Etiology of Down Syndrome, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-631-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children with Down's syndrome (DS) have 20-50-fold higher incidence of all leukaemias (lymphoid and myeloid), for reasons not understood. As incidence of many solid tumours is much lower in DS, we speculated that disturbed early haematopoietic differentiation could be the cause of increased leukaemia risk. If a common mechanism is behind the risk of both major leukaemia types, it would have to arise before the bifurcation to myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Using the transchromosomic system (mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)) bearing an extra human chromosome 21 (HSA21)) we analyzed the early stages of haematopoietic commitment (mesodermal colony formation) in vitro. We observed that trisomy 21 (T21) causes increased production of haemogenic endothelial cells, haematopoietic stem cell precursors and increased colony forming potential, with significantly increased immature progenitors. Transchromosomic colonies showed increased expression of Gata-2, c-Kit and Tie-2. A panel of partial T21 ESCs allowed us to assign these effects to HSA21 sub-regions, mapped by 3.5 kbp-resolution tiling arrays. The Gata-2 increase on one side, and c-Kit and Tie-2 increases on the other, could be attributed to two different, non-overlapping HSA21 regions. Using human-specific small interfering RNA silencing, we could demonstrate that an extra copy of RUNX1, but not ETS-2 or ERG, causes an increase in Tie-2/c-Kit levels. Finally, we detected significantly increased levels of RUNX1, C-KIT and PU.1 in human foetal livers with T21. We conclude that overdose of more than one HSA21 gene contributes to the disturbance of early haematopoiesis in DS, and that one of the contributors is RUNX1. As the observed T21-driven hyperproduction of multipotential immature precursors precedes the bifurcation to lymphoid and myeloid lineages, we speculate that this could create conditions of increased chance for acquisition of pre-leukaemogenic rearrangements/mutations in both lymphoid and myeloid lineages during foetal haematopoiesis, contributing to the increased risk of both leukaemia types in DS.
    Oncogene 11/2010; 29(46):6102-14. DOI:10.1038/onc.2010.351 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are the in vitro descendants of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) of human blastocyst stage embryos. HESCs can be kept undifferentiated in culture or be differentiated to tissues representing all three germ layers, both in vivo and in vitro. These properties make HESC-based therapy remarkably appealing for the treatment of various disorders. Upon transplantation in vivo, undifferentiated HESCs rapidly generate the formation of large tumors called teratomas. These are benign masses of haphazardly differentiated tissues. Teratomas also appear spontaneously in humans and in mice. When they also encompass a core of malignant undifferentiated cells, these tumors are defined as teratocarcinomas. These malignant undifferentiated cells are termed embryonic carcinoma (EC), and are the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem cells. Here we review the history of experimental teratomas and teratocarcinomas, from spontaneous teratocarcinomas in mice to induced teratomas by HESC transplantation. We then discuss cellular and molecular aspects of the tumorigenicity of HESCs. We also describe the utilization of HESC-induced teratomas for the modeling of early human embryogenesis and for modeling developmental diseases. The problem of HESC-induced teratomas may also impede or prevent future HESC-based therapies. We thus conclude with a survey of approaches to evade HESC-induced tumor formation.
    Advances in Cancer Research 02/2008; 100:133-58. DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(08)00005-5 · 4.26 Impact Factor