The role of tissue microarrays in prostate cancer biomarker discovery.
ABSTRACT Tissue microarrays (TMAs) offer the potential to rapidly translate genomics and basic science research findings to practical clinical application. This is particularly true in the field of cancer biomarker research, where TMAs can be used for candidate biomarker validation and association with patient clinical, pathologic, and outcomes parameters. In this review, we examine the effect of TMA use on prostate cancer biomarker research, focusing on the types of TMAs that have been used, and the biomarkers that have been examined. The results demonstrate that TMAs have been very effective in screening candidate biomarkers for subsequent, extended evaluation in large patient populations. In addition, the use of TMAs in multiple biomarker series allows for the statistical analysis of sets of biomarkers as diagnostic or prognostic tests. The processes used here can be applied to any tumor type to improve patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response prediction.
SourceAvailable from: Aurora Esquela-Kerscher[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers 01/2011; 9(1-6):441-59. DOI:10.3233/CBM-2011-0181 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore whether vascular density and tumour cell proliferation are related to the risk of prostate cancer death in patients managed by watchful waiting. From a consecutive series of men diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection in 1975-1990, tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed. A majority of men had no metastases at diagnosis and were followed by watchful waiting (n = 295). The TMAs were stained for Ki67, endoglin and factor VIII-related antigen (vWf). In univariate Cox analyses, increased Ki67 index, endoglin vascular density and vWf vascular density were associated with shorter cancer-specific survival. Ki67 index and endoglin vascular density added independent prognostic information to clinical stage, estimated tumour size and Gleason score (GS) in multivariate Cox analysis. In GS 6 tumours, high Ki67 index and high endoglin vascular density identified patients with poor outcome. After 15 years of follow-up not a single man out of 34 men with low staining for both markers (35% of all GS 6 tumours) had died of prostate cancer, in contrast to 15 prostate cancer deaths among the remaining 63 men with GS 6 tumours (65% cumulative risk of prostate cancer death). vWf vascular density in benign areas was a prognostic marker in GS 6 and 7 tumours. Men with GS 6 tumours with both low Ki67 index and endoglin vascular density staining scores have a low risk of progression. Additional studies are needed to test whether these two markers can be applied to core biopsies to select patients suitable for surveillance.Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 03/2012; 46(4):247-57. DOI:10.3109/00365599.2012.669791 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) expression profile in the different Gleason patterns (GP) of primary prostate cancers and nodal metastases is unknown. More information about AR distribution is needed to optimize evaluation methods and to better understand the role of AR in development and progression of prostate cancer. A tissue microarray was constructed from 119 hormone-naïve nodal positive, surgically treated prostate cancers containing tissues from all GP present in every primary tumor and the matched metastases. ARs were evaluated immunohistochemically and an expression score (intensity × percentage of positive cells) was assigned for each tissue spot. ARs were up-regulated in primary tumors compared to normal glands and significantly different expressed in the GP (mean AR scores: GP 3=128.7, GP 4=159.1, GP 5=123.5; P=0.016). A similar expression profile was observed in metastases, however, on significantly (P<0.001) lower level (mean AR scores: GP 3=70.5, GP 4=90.4, GP 5=71.7; P=0.114). High AR expression in metastases was associated with larger total size of metastases (P=0.008). All other correlations of AR expression in primary tumors and metastases with quantitative (age, prostate cancer volume, number of metastases) or categorical (tumor stage, Gleason score of the primary tumor and metastases) tumor characteristics or with survival were insignificant. ARs are differentially expressed in GP what should be considered in prognostic models which include AR. In nodal metastases, ARs are significantly down-regulated suggesting decreased dependence on androgens already under hormone-naïve conditions. AR expression level is not prognostic in nodal positive disease.The Prostate 04/2011; 71(5):453-60. DOI:10.1002/pros.21259 · 3.57 Impact Factor