Radiation induces apoptosis as a result of damage to cellular DNA and RNA. The aim of our work was to study the effect of radiation on rat bone marrow cells (as a neighboring tissue) in the context of a model of experimental radiation enteritis in rats. The effect of systematic administration in irradiated animals of r-IGF-1 and GH was also studied.
Wistar type, normal rats, were divided in 4 groups. One control group and the other 3 groups were irradiated in the abdomen. The measured scattered irradiation in the femur ranged from 16.5 to 47.3 cGy. In 2 groups of irradiated animals, rIGF-1 (0.1 microg/g of body weight twice/d) and rGH (0.25 microg/g of body weight /d) were administered. Bone marrow cells were harvested from both femurs. DNA and RNA were analyzed in specific gels. The m-RNA was hybridized for c-fos proto-oncogene expression.
The calculated low dose of radiation that affected the femurs of the animals induced reduction in bone marrow cell numbers and endonuclease activation manifested by subsequent fragmentation of DNA and RNA. This phenomenon was reversed by rGH and rIGF-1 administration. The c-fos proto-oncogene expression was upregulated by irradiation.
These observations indicate that scattered low dose radiation is capable of initiating apoptosis in rat bone marrow cells and rGH and rIGF-1 administration reverse this process.
"Thus, apoptosis of the HSC could occur as part of the normal physiology in bone marrow cells . Previously, it has been shown that apoptosis could happen in bone marrow of control rats . Apoptosis could result from a direct effect of GCs on the bone cells or could be secondary to the dysfunction/activation of other cells such as the femoral head endothelial cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteonecrosis (ON) is an important complication of medical therapy. The exact pathomechanisms of ON has not been clearly elucidated. There is a need for a reproducible animal model that better approximates the clinical scenario.
To determine the genetic susceptibility of rats to develop GC-induced femoral head ON, we evaluated 5 different inbred strains of rats (Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth, SASCO Fisher and Lewis). Prednisone pellets (dosage of 1.82-2.56 mg/kg/day) were implanted subcutaneously for 90. After 90 days, the femurs were resected and examined histologically and radiographically. Pathological and histological examination was performed. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining was used to delineate the femoral head osteonecrosis lesions as well as abnormalities of articular cartilage and growth plate.
The greatest differences in H & E staining were seen in the Wistar Kyoto and Wistar Furth groups. In these groups 4 out of 5 and 3 out of 5, respectively, steroid-induced rats revealed growth plate disruption with acellular areas. The TUNEL apoptosis staining assay for apoptosis revealed that 4 out of 5 of Wistar Kyoto rats, 5 out of 5 of Wistar Furth, 2 out of 4 of surviving Lewis and 2 out of 2 of the surviving spontaneous hypertensive rats had apoptotic osteocytes in trabeculae, whereas none of the Fisher rats showed apoptotic osteocytes.
We postulate that Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth and spontaneous hypertensive rats may be strains of rats more susceptible to develop ON of the femoral head while Fisher rats were the most resistant.
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 12/2011; 6(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1749-799X-6-62 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34(+) irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34(+) from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis.
Journal of Radiation Research 07/2012; 53(5):672-85. DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrs019 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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