Runoff and infiltration characteristics of pavement structures - review of an extensive monitoring program

Institute of Urban Water Management, University of Kaiserslautern, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 14, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Water Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 1.21). 02/2007; 56(10):133-40. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.750
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The stormwater runoff and infiltration performance of permeable pavements has been systematically evaluated within an intensive monitoring program. The primary objective of the investigation was to generate a broad database, which enables the development of an advanced simulation module for urban drainage modelling. Over 160 field and lab scale experiments have been completed and analyzed for surface runoff and infiltration characteristics. The test series include several pavement types under various boundary conditions such as diverse precipitation impacts, varying surface slope and layer construction as well as different stages of surface clogging and several base and subgrade layer characteristics. The results represent a reliable and comprehensive database that allows profound conclusions and substantial recommendations.

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    ABSTRACT: Between the soggy ceiling of the ground water aquifer and the uppermost interface of earth and air is the unsaturated space of soil particles and pores invisible to most surface dwellers – the vadose zone. In cities, this space can be frozen in time under buildings and sidewalks, and contaminated with various kinds and concentrations of polluting substances. With more than 50% of the world’s population living in cities as of 2007, research on the composition, function and dynamics of urban soils is of utmost importance for urban ecological questions as well as the for the wellbeing of city dwellers world wide. Even before the 50% demographic benchmark, interest in anthropogenic soils began stirring in Germany in the 1970s in Berlin and Essen (Burghardt 1995; Blume 1975). At that time, research concerns revolved around the proper classification of soils in urban areas and the dilemma of restoring and re-using former industrial sites. From the 1980s until the beginning of the 1990s, pollution of urban soils with organic and inorganic contaminants became the focus of many studies (Thornton 1991; Lux 1993; Radtke et al. 1997). Since then, research on urban soils has substantially broadened. The BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research) project “Evaluation of Urban Soils” from 1993 to 1996, for example, included groundbreaking work on the chemical, physical and biological properties of anthropogenic soils, involving major soil science institutions from the universities of Kiel, Essen, Hohenheim, Halle, Rostock and Berlin. Results are presented in Blume and Schleuss (1997).
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    ABSTRACT: Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water runoff are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10 À3 m and a surface of at least 15 × 10 À6 m 2 with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual runoff .
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the infiltration performance of a new 18 m 2 PICP test pavement under a variety of different flow conditions and pavement slopes. The initial results show that there is a clear relationship between pavement slope and the infiltration capacity through the pavement surface. Generally this relationship has demonstrated that the infiltration capacity at the surface of PICP systems will reduce as the slope of the system increases. However, the results also showed that the PICP test pavement used in this study had high infiltration rates of , even at slopes up to 20%. This suggests that typical PICP design guideline recommendations of maximum pavement slopes of 5% are probably overly conservative. The results of this investigation also showed that a significant amount of lateral movement of water occurred within the pavement structure and this was thought to be mainly caused by a geofabric layer that was included between the bedding and basecourse layers.
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