Development and evaluation of the physical activity questionnaire for elderly Japanese: the Nakanojo study.
ABSTRACT The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese (PAQ-EJ) is a self-administered physical activity questionnaire for elderly Japanese; the authors report here on its repeatability and direct and indirect validity. Reliability was assessed by repeat administration after 1 month. Direct validation was based on accelerometer data collected every 4 s for 1 month in 147 individuals age 65-85 years. Indirect validation against a 10-item Barthel index (activities of daily living [ADL]) was completed in 3,084 individuals age 65-99 years. The test-retest coefficient was high (r = .64-.71). Total and subtotal scores for lower (transportation, housework, and labor) and higher intensity activities (exercise/sports) were significantly correlated with step counts and durations of physical activity <3 and >or=3 METs (r = .41, .28, .53), respectively. Controlling for age and ADL, scores for transportation, exercise/sports, and labor were greater in men, but women performed more housework. Sex- and ADL- or age-adjusted PAQ-EJ scores were significantly lower in older and dependent people. PAQ-EJ repeatability and validity seem comparable to those of instruments used in Western epidemiological studies.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of playing Nintendo Wii on the psychological, social and physical well-being of elders. Based on the unique features of Wii, we also explored the possible mediation effects that social interaction and physical activity that playing Wii had on psychological well-being. Finally, we studied how the benefits of playing Wii may be magnified under different playing conditions. A six week-long intervention was held in SASCO Senior Citizens’ Home, a long-term care facility in Singapore. 45 residents aged between 56 and 92 years old took part in the study. Participants were split into three experimental groups: (1) Multiplayer Wii group (2) Single-player Wii group and (3) control group, who played traditional group games. Game sessions took place three times a week, lasting one and a half hours each. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interviews before and after the intervention. Measures included social interaction, physical activity, senior centre belonging, loneliness, affect and self-esteem. Results showed that playing Wii had a positive impact on the overall well-being of the elderly. Mediation effects were found for psychological well-being variables like loneliness and belonging. The elder in the single-player Wii group exhibited more positive affect compared to those in the multiplayer group. Through this study, Wii was proven to have a positive contribution to the overall well-being of the elderly. Explanations and implications for future applications of Wii in interventions for the elderly are were discussed. COMMUNICATION STUDIES
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ABSTRACT: In the current study, we examined the impact of playing Nintendo Wii games on the psychological and physical well-being of seniors in a long-term care facility. A six week-long intervention was held in SASCO Senior Citizens' Home, a long-term care facility in Singapore. Forty five residents aged between 56 and 92 years old participated in the longitudinal field experiment. Results showed that playing Wii games had a positive impact on the overall well-being of the elderly, compared to a control group that played traditional board games. Implications for future applications of Wii in interventions for the elderly are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: In older adults, as in younger individuals, habitual moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of various chronic health conditions, including certain types of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disease and certain forms of cancer. However, the pattern of physical activity associated with such benefits remains unclear. One problem is that most investigators have examined patterns of physical activity using either subjective questionnaires or accelerometer or pedometer measurements limited to a single week, despite clear evidence of both the unreliability/invalidity of questionnaires and seasonal changes in activity patterns. Since 2000, we have thus conducted an interdisciplinary study examining the habitual physical activity and health of elderly people living in a medium-sized Japanese town (the Nakanojo Study). In about one-tenth of some 5000 available subjects aged > or =65 years, physical activity has already been assessed continuously for 24 h/day for >8 years using a specially adapted pedometer/accelerometer. This device has a storage capacity of 36 days and can distinguish >10 intensities of physical activity (expressed in metabolic equivalents [METs]). Data have to date been summarized as daily step counts and daily durations of activity of <3 and >3 METs, averaged over a 1-year period. This article provides a detailed overview of both factors influencing habitual physical activity and relationships between such activity and health in an elderly population. To date, analyses have been cross-sectional in type. Substantial associations have been noted between the overall health of participants and both the daily duration of effort undertaken at an intensity of >3 METs and the daily step count. In men, the extent of health is associated more closely with the daily duration of activity of >3 METs than with the daily step count, whereas in women, the association is closer for the step count than for the duration of activity >3 METs. In both sexes, the threshold amount of physical activity associated with better health is greater for physical than for mental benefits: >8000 versus >4000 steps/day and/or >20 versus >5 min/day at an intensity >3 METs, respectively. In other words, better physical health is seen in those spending at least 20 min/day in moderate walking (at a pace of around 1.4 m/s [5 km/h]) and a further >60 min of light activity per day. In contrast, better mental health is associated with much smaller amounts of deliberate physical activity. The daily step count and the daily durations of activity of <3 and >3 METs are all influenced by meteorological factors, particularly precipitation and mean ambient temperature. Activity decreases exponentially to about 4000 steps/day as precipitation increases. Excluding the influence of rainfall, the daily step count peaks at a mean outdoor temperature of around 17 degrees C; above and especially below such readings, physical activity decreases as a quadratic function of temperature. Seasonal changes in microclimate should thus be considered when designing interventions intended to increase the habitual physical activity of elderly people. The observed associations between physical activity and health outcomes point to a need for longitudinal analyses; these should examine potential causal interpretations of the current findings and elucidate possible additional mediating variables.Sports Medicine 02/2009; 39(6):423-38. · 5.32 Impact Factor