Systematic review and meta-analysis of real-world adherence to drug therapy for osteoporosis.
ABSTRACT To quantify the adherence of patients to drug therapy for osteoporosis in real-world settings via a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language observational studies published from January 1, 1990, to February 15, 2006, that assessed patient adherence to drug therapy for osteoporosis using the following medical subject headings and keywords: drug therapy, medication adherence, medication persistence, medication possession ratio, patient compliance, and osteoporosis. Studies were stratified into 3 groups: persistence (how long a patient continues therapy), compliance (how correctly, in terms of dose and frequency, a patient takes the medication), and adherence (a combination of persistence and compliance). A random-effects model was used to pool results from the selected studies.
Twenty-four studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled database-derived persistence rate was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44%-59%) for treatment lasting 1 to 6 months, 50% (95% CI, 37%-63%) for treatment lasting 7 to 12 months, 42% (95% CI, 20%-68%) for treatment lasting 13 to 24 months, returning to 52% (95% CI, 45%-58%) for treatment lasting more than 24 months. Pooled adherence rates decreased from 53% (95% CI, 52%-54%) for treatment lasting 1 to 6 months to 43% for treatment lasting 7 to 12 months (95% CI, 38%-49%) or 13 to 24 months (43%; 95% CI, 32%-54%). The pooled refill compliance estimate was 68% (95% CI, 63%-72%) for treatment lasting 7 to 12 months and 68% (95% CI, 67%-69%) for treatment lasting 13 to 24 months. The pooled self-reported compliance rate was 62% (95% CI, 48%-75%) for treatment lasting 1 to 6 months and 66% (95% CI, 45%-81%) for treatment lasting 7 to 12 months.
One-third to half of patients do not take their medication as directed. Nonadherence occurs shortly after treatment initiation. Terms and definitions need to be standardized to permit comparability of technologies designed to improve patient adherence. Prospective trials are needed to assess the relationship between adherence and patient outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium use was common and remained high among women on osteoporosis therapy. Use of calcium-supplemented pharmacologic therapy increased from 65.1 to 76.0 % in these women (mean follow-up, 27.5 months). Over 12 months, calcium discontinuation was fairly similar among women using calcium only (23.7 %) and women supplementing pharmacologic therapy with calcium (22.5 %). Calcium has an important role in bone health. This study describes calcium use and persistence in a postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment cohort. Subject-reported calcium use was analyzed for 3,722 participants of the Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience (POSSIBLE US(TM)) who used calcium either as their sole osteoporosis treatment (calcium only) or to supplement pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy (supplementers). Descriptive analyses were conducted. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the probability of discontinuing calcium therapy, and logistic regression was used to assess associations (age-adjusted odds ratios) between healthy behaviors and calcium use. At entry, there were 711 calcium-only subjects and 1,960 of 3,011 subjects on pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy also supplementing with calcium (supplementers). The percentage of supplementers increased from 65.1 to 76.0 % during follow-up (mean, 27.5 months). During the first 12 months on study, the probability of calcium discontinuation was 23.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 20.7 - 27.0) among calcium-only subjects and 22.5 % (95 % CI, 20.7-24.5) among supplementers. Supplementers who discontinued pharmacologic therapy were more likely to discontinue calcium than supplementers who continued pharmacologic therapy (34.9 versus 14.8 %). Overall 54.2 % of calcium-only subjects who discontinued calcium and 42.3 % of supplementers who discontinued calcium resumed calcium use during follow-up. Regular exercise was positively correlated with calcium use at study entry. Calcium supplementation in pharmacologically treated subjects increased over time. Persistence with calcium was high. Discontinuation of pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy was associated with an increased likelihood of discontinuing calcium use.Osteoporosis International 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00198-015-3128-8 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-term persistence with anti-osteoporosis drugs and determinants for discontinuation among fracture patients were examined. Persistence was 75.0 and 45.3 % after 1 and 5 years, respectively. Those aged ≥80 years were at increased risk of early discontinuation. Within 1 year after discontinuation, 24.3 % restarted therapy, yet 47.0 % persisted for 1 year. The risk of osteoporotic fracture can effectively be reduced with use of anti-osteoporosis drugs. However, little is known about persistence with these drugs after fracture where subsequent fracture risk is high. The aims were to determine long-term persistence with anti-osteoporosis drugs among fracture patients, including its determinants, and to describe restart and subsequent persistence. A cohort study was conducted within the Dutch PHARMO Database Network. Patients aged ≥50 years (n = 961) who received anti-osteoporosis drugs within 1 year after fracture, but not in the preceding year, were included (2002-2011). Persistence (defined as the proportion on treatment) and the proportion restarting after discontinuation were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to identify determinants of non-persistence including age, sex, initial dosage regime, fracture type, comorbidities, and drug use. Persistence with anti-osteoporosis drugs was 75.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 72.0-77.7) and 45.3 % (95 % CI 40.4-50.0) after 1 and 5 years, respectively. A significant determinant of non-persistence was age ≥80 years (reference 50-59 years: adjusted hazard ratio [adj. HR] 1.65; 95 % CI 1.15-2.38). This effect was not constant over time (≤360 days following initiation: adj. HR 2.07; 95 % CI 1.27-3.37; >360 days: adj. HR 1.08; 95 % CI 0.62-1.88). Within 1 year after discontinuation, 24.3 % (95 % CI 20.1-29.2) restarted therapy, yet 47.0 % persisted for 1 year. This study identified suboptimal persistence with anti-osteoporosis drugs among fracture patients. Major target groups for measures aimed to improve persistence may be those aged >80 years and those restarting therapy.Osteoporosis International 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00198-015-3084-3 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patient adherence and persistence is important to improve outcomes in chronic conditions, including inflammatory and immunologic (I&I) diseases. Patient programs that aim at improving medication adherence or persistence play an essential role in optimizing care. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of patient programs in the therapeutic area of I&I diseases. A global systematic literature review was conducted with inclusion criteria of: patient programs in I&I diseases; published in English language between January 2008 and September 2013; and reporting measures of adherence or persistence, including medication possession ratio >80% and persistence rate. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Subgroup analyses based on the type of program was performed whenever feasible. Of 67 studies reviewed for eligibility, a total of 17 studies qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Overall, patient programs increased adherence (odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.68-3.64, P<0.00001) as compared with standard of care. Combination patient programs that used both informational and behavioral strategies were superior in improving adherence (OR=3.68, 95% CI=2.20-6.16, P<0.00001) compared with programs that used only informational (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.36-3.44, P=0.001) or only behavioral approaches (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.00-3.45, P=0.05). Additionally, patients were more likely to be persistent (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.16-4.39, P=0.02) in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Persistence (in days) was significantly (P=0.007) longer, by 42 additional days, in the intervention group than in the control group. Patient programs can significantly improve adherence as well as persistence in the therapeutic area of I&I diseases. Programs employing a multimodal approach are more effective in improving adherence than programs with informational or behavioral strategies alone. This in turn may improve patient outcomes.Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2015; 9:435-48. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S77053 · 1.49 Impact Factor