The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.91). 12/2007; 4(1):23. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-23
Source: PubMed


A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation on golf performance in healthy young golfers with handicaps of 15-40.
Perceived stress, heart rate and the quality of the ball flight was evaluated before (pre-test) and after (post-test) 42 days of 200 mg per day PS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) intake in the form of a nutritional bar. Subjects teed-off 20 times aiming at a green 135 meters from the tee area.
PS supplementation significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of good ball flights (mean: pre-test 8.3 +/- 3.5, post-test 10.1 +/- 3.0), whereas placebo intake (mean: pre-test 7.8 +/- 2.4, post-test 7.9 +/- 3.6) had no effect. PS supplementation showed a trend towards improving perceived stress levels during teeing-off (mean: pre-test 5.8 +/- 2.0, post-test 4.0 +/- 2.0, p = 0.07), whereas stress levels remained unchanged in the placebo group (mean: pre-test: 5.1 +/- 2.0, post-test: 5.1 +/- 3.1). Supplementation did not influence mean heart rate in either group.
It is concluded that six weeks of PS supplementation shows a statistically not significant tendency (p = 0.07) to improve perceived stress levels in golfers and significantly improves (p < 0.05) the number of good ball flights during tee-off which might result in improved golf scores.

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    • "Consistent with this possibility, previous studies have shown that certain phospholipids can improve athletic performance [26]. For example, PC increases endurance by preventing exercise induced declines in choline levels and PS by blunting exercise induced increases in cortisol [27] and improving mental performance under stress [28]. However, no study has yet investigated the effects of long-term PS supplementation in combination with resistance exercise on potential gains in muscular hypertrophy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. Methods In phase one, C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with different phospholipids and phospholipid precursors derived from soy and egg sources. The ratio of phosphorylated p70 (P-p70-389) to total p70 was then used as readout for mTOR signaling. In phase two, resistance trained subjects (n = 28, 21 ± 3 years, 77 ± 4 kg, 176 ± 9 cm) consumed either 750 mg PA daily or placebo and each took part in an 8 week periodized resistance training program. Results In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%). In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo. Conclusion PA significantly activates mTOR and significantly improved responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and maximal strength to resistance exercise.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 06/2014; 11:29. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-11-29 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "PS has been shown to blunt stress induced increases in cortisol (Starks et al., 2008) and to significantly decrease b-1 power in the right hemispheric frontal brain regions before and after stress (Baumeister et al., 2008). These beneficial effects result in an increase in performance during a calculus test (Parker et al., 2011) and an increase in motor skills in golf players (J€ ager et al., 2007). Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in controlling memory relevant signalling process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioural disorder of childhood, affecting 3–5% of school-age children. The present study investigated whether the supplementation of soy-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), a naturally occurring phospholipid, improves ADHD symptoms in children. Methods Thirty six children, aged 4–14 years, who had not previously received any drug treatment related to ADHD, received placebo (n = 17) or 200 mg day–1 PS (n = 19) for 2 months in a randomised, double-blind manner. Main outcome measures included: (i) ADHD symptoms based on DSM-IV-TR; (ii) short-term auditory memory and working memory using the Digit Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; and (iii) mental performance to visual stimuli (GO/NO GO task). Results PS supplementation resulted in significant improvements in: (i) ADHD (P < 0.01), AD (P < 0.01) and HD (P < 0.01); (ii) short-term auditory memory (P < 0.05); and (iii) inattention (differentiation and reverse differentiation, P < 0.05) and inattention and impulsivity (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in other measurements and in the placebo group. PS was well-tolerated and showed no adverse effects. Conclusions PS significantly improved ADHD symptoms and short-term auditory memory in children. PS supplementation might be a safe and natural nutritional strategy for improving mental performance in young children suffering from ADHD.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 03/2013; 27(Suppl 2). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12090 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    • "There have been several studies that suggest supplementation with anywhere from 200-800 mg of PS per day can result in improved mood, cognitive functioning, sport performance, endocrine response to stress, and decreased soreness following exercise [1,3]. Short-term (10 days) high-dose (600 mg per day) supplementation with PS has been shown to attenuate cortisol response to moderate exercise via activiation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis [4] and low-dose (200 mg per day) long-term (6 weeks) consumption of PS and carbohydrates resulted in a reduction of perceived stress and improved golf performance [5]. Additionally, supplementation of 200 mg per day has been shown to induce a state of relaxation before and after exposure to a stressful environment [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid found in cell membranes of most animals and plants. PS has been shown to reduce stress and increase performance in runners, cyclists and golfers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a PS containing formulation on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and after intense resistance exercise. 18 lower body, resistance trained, college aged males ingested 14 days of supplement (IQPLUS Focus, providing 400 mg of soy-derived PS) and a Placebo (PL), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over manner. Following 14 days of supplementation, participants performed an acute bout of lower body resistance training. Mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS) and cognitive function (Serial Subtraction Test, SST) were measured prior to, 5 minutes after, and 60 minutes after exercise. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 5, 15, 25, 40 and 60 minutes after exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma cortisol and testosterone. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. PS supplementation significantly reduced the time needed for a correct calculation on the SST by 20% (reduced by 1.27 s per calculation; PL: 6.4 s, PS: 5.13 s; p = 0.001), and reduced the total amount of errors by 39% (PL: 1.28 + .69, PS: .78 + .27, p = 0.53), and increased the amount of correct calculations by 13% (PL: 22.1 + 2.24, PS: 24.9 + 1.52, p = 0.07) prior to or in response to exercise compared to PL. Following exercise, there was no difference in SST scores between PS and PL. There were no significant changes in regards to mood or endocrine response to exercise as a result of PS supplementation. PS supplementation significantly increased cognitive function prior to exercise. Improved cognitive function could benefit athletes and non-athletes alike. PS did not appear to affect mood or endocrine response prior to or following resistance exercise.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10/2011; 8(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-8-16 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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