Effects of in vitro exposure to hay dust on expression of interleukin-17, -23, -8, and -1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 by pulmonary mononuclear cells isolated from horses chronically affected with recurrent airway disease
To examine effects of in vitro exposure to solutions of hay dust, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or beta-glucan on cytokine expression in pulmonary mononuclear cells isolated from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).
8 RAO-affected and 7 control horses (experiment 1) and 6 of the RAO-affected and 5 of the control horses (experiment 2).
Bronchoalveolar lavage cells were isolated from horses that had been stabled and fed dusty hay for 14 days. Pulmonary mononuclear cells were incubated for 24 (experiment 1) or 6 (experiment 2) hours with PBS solution or solutions of hay dust, beta-glucan, or LPS. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-23(p19 and p40 subunits), IL-8, IL-1beta, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) was measured with a kinetic PCR assay.
Treatment with the highest concentration of hay dust solution for 6 or 24 hours increased expression of IL-23(p19 and p40), IL-8, and IL-1beta in cells from both groups of horses and increased early expression of IL-17 and CXCL2 in RAO-affected horses. Lipopolysaccharide upregulated early expression of IL-23(p40) and IL-8 in cells from both groups of horses but only late expression of these cytokines in cells from RAO-affected horses. Treatment with beta-glucan failed to increase cytokine expression at 6 or 24 hours.
Cells from RAO-affected horses were not more responsive to the ligands tested than were cells from control horses, which suggests a minimal role of mononuclear cells in propagation of airway neutrophilia in horses with chronic RAO.
"IL-23R is also expressed with NK cells (Parham et al., 2002). With regard to veterinary medicine, IL-23 has been associated with inflammatory diseases of importance; transcripts for IL-23 are increased in the lungs of horses exposed to hay dust (Ainsworth et al., 2007). We have cloned the bovine IL-23p19 subunit (IL23A) cDNA and bovine IL-23 receptor (IL23R) cDNA to generate tools to evaluate their roles in inflammatory diseases of cattle and generation of Th17 cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cloning and characterization of bovine IL23A and IL23 receptor cDNA from total RNA of PBMC and the genomic organization of the coding sequences are reported. The IL23A partial coding region was found to be 578 nucleotides coded for in 4 exons and shared 84% and 76% identity with human and mouse sequences, respectively. The IL23R complete coding region had 1890 nucleotides coded for in 10 exons and shared 87% and 73% homology with the human and mouse sequences, respectively. Both bovine sequences were more closely related to the human sequences than were mouse sequence. This work was done as part of the U.S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network whose goal is to develop reagents for investigating diseases in livestock species, poultry and fish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pietra, M., Peli, A., Bonato, A., Ducci, A. and Cinotti, S., 2007. Equine bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines in the development
of recurrent airway obstruction. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 313–316
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases occur in most mammals, although some species such as humans, dogs and horses seem to be more prone to develop allergies than others. In horses, insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), an allergic dermatitis caused by bites of midges, and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), a hyperreactivity to stable born dust and allergens, are the two most prevalent allergic diseases.Allergic diseases involve the interaction of three major factors: (i) genetic constitution, (ii) exposure to allergens, and (iii) a dysregulation of the immune response determined by (i) and (ii). However, other environmental factors such as infectious diseases, contact with endotoxin and degree of infestation with endoparasites have been shown to influence the prevalence of allergic diseases in humans. How these factors may impact upon allergic disease in the horse is unknown at this time. The 3rd workshop on Allergic Diseases of the Horse, with major sponsorship from the Havemeyer Foundation, was held in Hólar, Iceland, in June 2007 and focussed on immunological and genetic aspects of IBH and RAO.This particular venue was chosen because of the prevalence of IBH in exported Icelandic horses. The incidence of IBH is significantly different between Icelandic horses born in Europe or North America and those born in Iceland and exported as adults. Although the genetic factors and allergens are the same, exported adult horses show a greater incidence of IBH. This suggests that environmental or epigenetic factors may contribute to this response. This report summarizes the present state of knowledge and summarizes important issues discussed at the workshop.
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