FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Muscle atrophy occurs in many pathological states and results primarily from accelerated protein degradation and activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the importance of lysosomes in muscle atrophy has received little attention. Activation of FoxO transcription factors is essential for the atrophy induced by denervation or fasting, and activated FoxO3 by itself causes marked atrophy of muscles and myotubes. Here, we report that FoxO3 does so by stimulating overall protein degradation and coordinately activating both lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. Surprisingly, in C2C12 myotubes, most of this increased proteolysis is mediated by lysosomes. Activated FoxO3 stimulates lysosomal proteolysis in muscle (and other cell types) by activating autophagy. FoxO3 also induces the expression of many autophagy-related genes, which are induced similarly in mouse muscles atrophying due to denervation or fasting. These studies indicate that decreased IGF-1-PI3K-Akt signaling activates autophagy not only through mTOR but also more slowly by a transcription-dependent mechanism involving FoxO3.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol causes liver hypoxia and steatosis, which eventually develops into alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While it has been known that alcohol consumption activates hepatic hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α), conflicting results regarding the role of HIF-1α in alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to use hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice to eliminate the possible compensatory effects of the single knockout of the 1α subunit of HIF to study the role of HIFs in ALD. C57BL/6 wild type mice were treated with acute ethanol to mimic human binge drinking. Matched wild-type and hepatocyte specific HIF-1β knockout mice were also subjected to a recently established Gao-binge alcohol model to mimic chronic plus binge conditions, which is quite common in human alcoholics. We found that acute alcohol treatment increased BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX expression in primary cultured hepatocytes and in mouse livers, suggesting that HIF may be activated in these models. We further found that hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice developed less steatosis and liver injury following the Gao-binge model or acute ethanol treatment compared with their matched wild type mice. Mechanistically, protection against Gao-binge treatment-induced steatosis and liver injury was likely associated with increased FoxO3a activation and subsequent induction of autophagy in hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e115849. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are recognized as critical processes underlying mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the molecular pathway(s) coordinating the balance between these cellular programs is still poorly investigated. Here, we show an induction of the nuclear and mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) during myogenesis, which in turn co-activates the transcription of nuclear and mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. We demonstrate that PGC-1α also buffers oxidative stress occurring during differentiation by promoting the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Indeed, by downregulating PGC-1α, we observed an impairment of antioxidants expression, which was accompanied by a significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and increase of oxidative damage to proteins. In parallel, we detected a decrease of mitochondrial mass and function as well as increased mitophagy through the ROS/FOXO1 pathway. Upon PGC-1α downregulation, we found ROS-dependent nuclear translocation of FOXO1 and transcription of its downstream targets including mitophagic genes such as LC3 and PINK1. Such events were significantly reverted after treatment with the antioxidant Trolox, suggesting that PGC-1α assures mitochondrial integrity by indirectly buffering ROS. Finally, the lack of PGC-1α gave rise to a decrease in MYOG and a strong induction of atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases FBXO32 (FBXO32), indicative of a degenerative process. Overall, our results reveal that in myotubes, PGC-1α takes center place in mitochondrial homeostasis during differentiation because of its ability to avoid ROS-mediated removal of mitochondria.Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1515. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cachexia is a muscle-wasting syndrome that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of many patients with advanced cancers. However, little is understood about how the severe loss of skeletal muscle characterizing this condition occurs. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle protein myostatin is involved in mediating the pathogenesis of cachexia-induced muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice. Myostatin gene inactivation prevented the severe loss of skeletal muscle mass induced in mice engrafted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells or in ApcMin/+ mice, an established model of colorectal cancer and cachexia. Mechanistically, myostatin loss attenuated the activation of muscle fiber proteolytic pathways by inhibiting the expression of atrophy-related genes, MuRF1 and MAFbx/Atrogin-1, along with autophagy-related genes. Notably, myostatin loss also impeded the growth of LLC tumors, the number and the size of intestinal polyps in ApcMin/+ mice, thus strongly increasing survival in both models. Gene expression analysis in the LLC model showed this phenotype to be associated with reduced expression of genes involved in tumor metabolism, activin signaling, and apoptosis. Taken together, our results reveal an essential role for myostatin in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia and link this condition to tumor growth, with implications for furthering understanding of cancer as a systemic disease.Cancer Research 12/2014; 74(24):7344-7356. · 9.28 Impact Factor