FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Muscle atrophy occurs in many pathological states and results primarily from accelerated protein degradation and activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the importance of lysosomes in muscle atrophy has received little attention. Activation of FoxO transcription factors is essential for the atrophy induced by denervation or fasting, and activated FoxO3 by itself causes marked atrophy of muscles and myotubes. Here, we report that FoxO3 does so by stimulating overall protein degradation and coordinately activating both lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. Surprisingly, in C2C12 myotubes, most of this increased proteolysis is mediated by lysosomes. Activated FoxO3 stimulates lysosomal proteolysis in muscle (and other cell types) by activating autophagy. FoxO3 also induces the expression of many autophagy-related genes, which are induced similarly in mouse muscles atrophying due to denervation or fasting. These studies indicate that decreased IGF-1-PI3K-Akt signaling activates autophagy not only through mTOR but also more slowly by a transcription-dependent mechanism involving FoxO3.
Article: The many forks in FOXO's road.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The FOXO family of transcription factors constitute an evolutionarily conserved subgroup within the larger family known as winged helix or Forkhead transcriptional regulators. Building upon work in the nematode, researchers have uncovered a role for these proteins in a diverse set of cellular responses that include glucose metabolism, stress response, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. At the organismal level, FOXO transcription factors are believed to function in various pathological processes ranging from cancer and diabetes to organismal aging. A number of studies have also shed light on the signaling pathways that regulate FOXO activity in response to external stimuli and have identified multiple FOXO target genes that mediate this varied set of biological responses.Science s STKE 04/2003; 2003(172):RE5.
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ABSTRACT: Both dauer formation (a stage of developmental arrest) and adult life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans are negatively regulated by insulin-like signaling, but little is known about cellular pathways that mediate these processes. Autophagy, through the sequestration and delivery of cargo to the lysosomes, is the major route for degrading long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. Using nematodes with a loss-of-function mutation in the insulin-like signaling pathway, we show that bec-1, the C. elegans ortholog of the yeast and mammalian autophagy gene APG6/VPS30/beclin1, is essential for normal dauer morphogenesis and life-span extension. Dauer formation is associated with increased autophagy and also requires C. elegans orthologs of the yeast autophagy genes APG1, APG7, APG8, and AUT10. Thus, autophagy is a cellular pathway essential for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegans.Science 10/2003; 301(5638):1387-91. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reagents that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in cells have not been available. Peptide aldehydes that inhibit major peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes are shown to reduce the degradation of protein and ubiquitinated protein substrates by 26S particles. Unlike inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, these compounds inhibit the degradation of not only abnormal and short-lived polypeptides but also long-lived proteins in intact cells. We used these agents to test the importance of the proteasome in antigen presentation. When ovalbumin is introduced into the cytosol of lymphoblasts, these inhibitors block the presentation on MHC class I molecules of an ovalbumin-derived peptide by preventing its proteolytic generation. By preventing peptide production from cell proteins, these inhibitors block the assembly of class I molecules. Therefore, the proteasome catalyzes the degradation of the vast majority of cell proteins and generates most peptides presented on MHC class I molecules.Cell 10/1994; 78(5):761-71. · 31.96 Impact Factor