Globular adiponectin but not full-length adiponectin induces increased procoagulability in human endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin (APN), a recently discovered adipocytokine, is present in human serum in a full length (fAPN) and a globular form (gAPN). gAPN is a proteolytic cleavage product of fAPN and seems to show independent biological activities compared to the properties of fAPN. The influence of gAPN and fAPN on procoagulability of cells is still unknown. This study examined the effect of gAPN and fAPN on the expression of tissue factor (TF), the initiator of the extrinsic coagulation system, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TF activity was measured by a chromogenic assay, TF mRNA by real-time PCR and TF protein by western blot. We found TF activity to be increased after activation by gAPN (3 microg/mL) compared to a non-stimulated control (169.0+/-19.23 U versus 501.9+/-38.95 U, p<0.001). Furthermore, TF mRNA and TF protein was increased dose-dependently after gAPN stimulation. The gAPN-induced rise of TF activity and TF mRNA was significantly reduced by inhibition of the MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Contrary to gAPN, stimulation with fAPN did not lead to these procoagulant effects. In conclusion, gAPN increased TF transcription, expression and activity in HUVECs. Therefore, our data support the theory that gAPN but not fAPN supports the cellular procoagulability via TF upregulation.
Article: Role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in regulating alternative splicing of tissue factor mRNA in human endothelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is the primary initiator of blood coagulation. In response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) express 2 TF isoforms: a soluble alternatively spliced isoform (asHTF) and membrane-bound "full length" (fl)TF. How the differential TF isoform expression is regulated is still unknown. This study compared the impact of PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition on alternative splicing of TF in HUVECs, to the influence of transcriptional regulation by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The mRNA expression of TF isoforms was assessed by real-time PCR, the thrombogenic activity was measured by a chromogenic TF activity assay and the phosphorylation state of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins was analyzed by western blotting. Transfection of HUVECs was done 72 h before the inhibition experiments were performed. PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition reduced the mRNA expression of asHTF but not flTF. Inhibition of NFkappaB reduced the expression of both isoforms. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition, but not that of NFkappaB, modified the phosphorylation of the SR proteins SRp75, SRp55 and SF2/ASF. Additionally, overexpression of SF2/ASF and SRp75 influenced the differential TF-isoform expression in HUVECs. The PI3K/Akt pathway modulates alternative splicing of TF in HUVECs, distinct from transcriptional regulation.Circulation Journal 08/2009; 73(9):1746-52. · 3.77 Impact Factor