Roles for hypoxia-regulated genes during cervical carcinogenesis: Somatic evolution during the hypoxia-glycolysis-acidosis sequence
ABSTRACT Malignant phenotypic traits are caused by microenvironmental selection pressures during carcinogenesis. Hypoxia can drive a tumor toward a more aggressive malignant phenotype. The objective was to better understand the role of the hypoxia-regulated genes in cervical carcinogenesis.
We analyzed the expression of the hypoxia-regulated genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), erythropoietin (Epo), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and MET, in cervical cell lines and human tissue samples of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I-III) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC).
CAIX and MET were expressed in cervical carcinoma cell lines, but not in normal or human papillomavirus-immortalized cervical cells. In clinical tissue samples, Epo, VEGF, GLUT1, and CAIX were not detected in normal squamous epithelia. GLUT1 was expressed in nearly all cases of CIN and ISCC, however, CAIX was expressed only in CIN III and ISCC. HIF-1alpha and MET expression was confined to the basal cells in normal squamous epithelia and was detected in the dysplastic cells of CIN and ISCC.
The role of HIF-1alpha and MET changes from response to proliferation to tumor progression during cervical carcinogenesis. GLUT1 expression, a glycolytic phenotype adaptive to glycolysis, occurs early during cervical carcinogenesis and is a specific marker for dysplasia or carcinoma. MET and CAIX may contribute tumor progression in later stage. CAIX expression, an acid-resistant phenotype, may be a powerful adaptive advantage during carcinogenesis. Successful adaptation to the hypoxia-glycolysis-acidosis sequence in a microenvironment is crucial during carcinogenesis.
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Article: pH sensing and regulation in cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cells maintain intracellular pH (pHi) within a narrow range (7.1-7.2) by controlling membrane proton pumps and transporters whose activity is set by intra-cytoplasmic pH sensors. These sensors have the ability to recognize and induce cellular responses to maintain the pHi, often at the expense of acidifying the extracellular pH. In turn, extracellular acidification impacts cells via specific acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review, we will discuss some of the major players in proton sensing at the plasma membrane and their downstream consequences in cancer cells and how these pH-mediated changes affect processes such as migration and metastasis. The complex mechanisms by which they transduce acid pH signals to the cytoplasm and nucleus are not well understood. However, there is evidence that expression of proton-sensing GPCRs such as GPR4, TDAG8, and OGR1 can regulate aspects of tumorigenesis and invasion, including cofilin and talin regulated actin (de-)polymerization. Major mechanisms for maintenance of pHi homeostasis include monocarboxylate, bicarbonate, and proton transporters. Notably, there is little evidence suggesting a link between their activities and those of the extracellular H(+)-sensors, suggesting a mechanistic disconnect between intra- and extracellular pH. Understanding the mechanisms of pH sensing and regulation may lead to novel and informed therapeutic strategies that can target acidosis, a common physical hallmark of solid tumors.Frontiers in Physiology 12/2013; 4:370. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00370
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of neoplastic disease still lays its foundations on the detection of altered tissue morphology. Most importantly, cancer begins, at least in many cases as a disease with altered tissue pattern formation. It is therefore rather surprising that the issue regarding the possible mechanistic role of such property in the pathogenesis of cancer has received relatively little attention so far. To be more specific, we need to ask the following question: is altered tissue pattern formation a mere bystander, with its pervasive presence along the entire carcinogenic sequence, or does it play a role in fuelling this process? Pathways related to morphogenesis and to the establishment of cell polarity will be considered for their possible mechanistic involvement in early phases of neoplastic disease. Evidences and hypotheses relating altered tissue pattern formation to the emergence of the tumor microenvironment and to neoplastic progression will be discussed.Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2012; 47(3):175-207. DOI:10.1016/j.proghi.2012.08.001 · 5.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide. The ability to quantify physiological and morphological changes in the cervix is not only useful in the diagnosis of cervical precancers but also important in aiding the design of cost-effective detection systems for use in developing countries that lack well-established screening and diagnostic programs. We assessed the capability of a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique to identify contrasts in optical biomarkers that vary with different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal cervical tissues. The technology consists of an optical probe and an instrument (with broadband light source, dispersive element, and detector), and a Monte Carlo algorithm to extract optical biomarker contributions including total hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Hb saturation, and reduced scattering coefficient from the measured spectra. Among 38 patients and 89 sites examined, 46 squamous normal sites, 18 CIN 1, and 15 CIN 2(+) sites were included in the analysis. Total Hb was statistically higher in CIN 2(+) (18.3 +/- 3.6 microM, mean +/- SE) compared with normal (9.58 +/- 1.91 microM) and CIN 1 (12.8 +/- 2.6 microM), whereas scattering was significantly reduced in CIN 1 (8.3 +/- 0.8 cm(-1)) and CIN 2(+) (8.6 +/- 1.0 cm(-1)) compared with normal (10.2 +/- 1.1 cm(-1)). Hemoglobin saturation was not significantly altered in CIN 2(+) compared with normal and CIN 1. The difference in total Hb is likely because of stromal angiogenesis, whereas decreased scattering can be attributed to breakdown of collagen network in the cervical stroma.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 05/2009; 11(4):325-32. DOI:10.1593/neo.81386 · 5.40 Impact Factor