Roles for hypoxia-regulated genes during cervical carcinogenesis: Somatic evolution during the hypoxia-glycolysis-acidosis sequence
ABSTRACT Malignant phenotypic traits are caused by microenvironmental selection pressures during carcinogenesis. Hypoxia can drive a tumor toward a more aggressive malignant phenotype. The objective was to better understand the role of the hypoxia-regulated genes in cervical carcinogenesis.
We analyzed the expression of the hypoxia-regulated genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), erythropoietin (Epo), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and MET, in cervical cell lines and human tissue samples of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I-III) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC).
CAIX and MET were expressed in cervical carcinoma cell lines, but not in normal or human papillomavirus-immortalized cervical cells. In clinical tissue samples, Epo, VEGF, GLUT1, and CAIX were not detected in normal squamous epithelia. GLUT1 was expressed in nearly all cases of CIN and ISCC, however, CAIX was expressed only in CIN III and ISCC. HIF-1alpha and MET expression was confined to the basal cells in normal squamous epithelia and was detected in the dysplastic cells of CIN and ISCC.
The role of HIF-1alpha and MET changes from response to proliferation to tumor progression during cervical carcinogenesis. GLUT1 expression, a glycolytic phenotype adaptive to glycolysis, occurs early during cervical carcinogenesis and is a specific marker for dysplasia or carcinoma. MET and CAIX may contribute tumor progression in later stage. CAIX expression, an acid-resistant phenotype, may be a powerful adaptive advantage during carcinogenesis. Successful adaptation to the hypoxia-glycolysis-acidosis sequence in a microenvironment is crucial during carcinogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Much effort is currently devoted to developing patient-specific cancer therapy based on molecular characterization of tumors. In particular, this approach seeks to identify driver mutations that can be blocked through small molecular inhibitors. However, this approach is limited by extensive intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, and, not surprisingly, even dramatic initial responses are typically of limited duration as resistant tumor clones rapidly emerge and proliferate. We propose an alternative approach based on observations that while tumor evolution produces genetic divergence, it is also associated with striking phenotypic convergence that loosely correspond to the well-known cancer "hallmarks". These convergent properties can be described as driver phenotypes and may be more consistently and robustly expressed than genetic targets. To this purpose, it is necessary to identify strategies that are critical for cancer progression and metastases, and it is likely that these driver phenotypes will be closely related to cancer "hallmarks". It appears that an antiacidic approach, by targetting a driver phenotype in tumors, may be thought as a future strategy against tumors in either preventing the occurrence of cancer or treating tumor patients with multiple aims, including the improvement of efficacy of existing therapies, possibly reducing their systemic side effects, and controlling tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. This may be achieved with existing molecules such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and buffers such as sodium bicarbonate, citrate, or TRIS.Cancer and metastasis reviews 11/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1007/s10555-014-9531-3 · 6.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that acidic microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through a series of signaling events. First, our study indicates that NF-κB is a key factor for acidosis-induced cell invasion. Acidosis activates NF-κB without affecting STAT3 activity; knockdown of NF-κB p65 abrogates the acidosis-induced invasion activity. Next, we show that the activation of NF-κB is mediated through phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Upstream to NF-κB signaling, AKT is activated under acidic conditions. Moreover, acidosis induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be suppressed by ROS scavengers, reversing the acidosis-induced activation of AKT and NF-κB, and invasiveness. As a negative regulator of AKT, PTEN is oxidized and inactivated by the acidosis-induced ROS. Finally, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) suppresses acidosis-induced ROS production, suggesting involvement of NOX in acidosis-induced signaling cascade. Of considerable interest, acidosis-induced ROS production and activation of AKT and NF-κB can be only detected in cancer cells, but not in non-malignant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a cancer specific acidosis-induced signaling cascade in breast cancer cells, leading to cell invasion.Oncotarget 09/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor hypoxia is significant in promoting tumor progression and resistance to therapy, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is essential in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of hypoxic markers and evaluate their prognostic significance in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). A retrospective analysis of 55 patients with STS from Pusan National University Hospital (Busan, Korea) between 1998 and 2007 was conducted, using immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The association between the overexpression of these markers and clinicopathological characteristics, including the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in cases of STS, were investigated. Overexpression of HIF-1α, CA9, GLUT1 and VEGF was shown in 54.5, 32.7, 52.7 and 25.5% of tumors, respectively, and all exhibited a significant association with high French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) grade and high American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage. Overexpression of HIF-1α and CA9 was associated with a shorter OS and a shorter PFS. On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage and HIF-1α overexpression had independent prognostic significance. In the group receiving chemotherapy (n=27), HIF-1α overexpression was independently associated with a decreased OS. These results indicate that overexpression of HIF-1α and CA9 is associated with poor prognosis, and that HIF-1α overexpression is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in STS.Oncology letters 04/2015; 9(4):1699-1706. DOI:10.3892/ol.2015.2914 · 0.99 Impact Factor