Review of factors essential for blastocyst implantation for their modulating effects on the maternal immune system.
ABSTRACT Pituitary and ovarian hormones prepare the endometrium for successful blastocyst implantation and support its process directly or indirectly through the action of growth factors, cytokines and other molecules. Many of the blastocyst implantation essential factors (BIEFs) are modulators of the maternal immune system. Since little is known as to the action of these molecules on the uterine lymphocytes, its clarification is imperative to the understanding of the process of blastocyst implantation.
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ABSTRACT: We review the results of our studies on the charge and the spin asymmetries in the electroproduction of π+π− which are the observables sensitive to the Pomeron-Odderon interference.Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements 06/2003; 121:155-159. DOI:10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01833-4 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During normal pregnancy, the decidua is populated by a variety of leucocytes; however, cells of the innate immune system seem to dominate this tissue. Their presence suggests that the innate immune system is not indifferent to the fetus and has been associated with a response of the maternal immune system to the "semi-allograft fetus." New evidences, however, indicates that these immune cells are critical for decidual and trophoblast development, rather than induction of tolerance. We hypothesized that, during implantation, an inflammatory environment is necessary for the attachment and invasion of the blastocyst. Therefore, we propose the existence of an "inflammatory-mediated embryo implantation" condition that is dependent on the proper "education" of the innate immune system by the trophoblast. Here we postulate that trophoblast cells successfully orchestrate their inflammatory environment and regulate immune cell differentiation and activation.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2008; 1127:121-8. DOI:10.1196/annals.1434.006 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The process of implantation involves the interaction of the human blastocyst and the uterine epithelium. Several autoimmune factors have been implicated to have an influence on implantation failure. Recent studies have investigated the role of autoimmune factors in implantation in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Antiphospholipid antibodies are identified more frequently in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization, but their presence does not appear to influence the outcome of pregnancy, miscarriage, or live birth rates. Antithyroid antibodies are commonly found in women of reproductive age, but implantation rates and miscarriage rates are not altered when women have normal thyroid function. Antinuclear antibodies may be a marker for underlying autoimmune disease when coupled with certain signs and symptoms, but low-titer antibodies do not influence in-vitro fertilization outcome. Antisperm antibodies are more often associated with fertilization failure when found in high titers in seminal plasma, in sperm, or in the mucosal immune system of women. Antisperm antibodies are uncommon but most often associated with ovarian hypofunction. Implantation is characterized by the interaction of two immunologically and genetically distinct tissues. During implantation, local and systemic immune factors, cytokines, and growth factors may interact with adhesion molecules and other matrix-associated proteins, glycoproteins, and peptides.Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology 07/2009; 21(3):291-5. DOI:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3283294879 · 2.37 Impact Factor