A phase I trial of lenalidomide in patients with recurrent primary central nervous system tumors
ABSTRACT Inhibition of angiogenesis represents a promising new therapeutic strategy for treating primary malignant brain tumors. Lenalidomide, a potent analogue of the antiangiogenic agent thalidomide, has shown significant activity in several hematologic malignancies, and therefore we chose to explore its tolerability and activity in patients with primary central nervous system tumors.
A phase I interpatient dose escalation trial of lenalidomide in patients with recurrent primary central nervous system tumors was conducted.
Thirty-six patients were accrued to the study, of which 28 were evaluable for toxicity, the primary end point of the trial. We show that lenalidomide can be given safely up to doses of 20 mg/m(2), with the only toxicity being a probable increased risk of thromboembolic disease. Pharmacokinetic studies reveal good bioavailability, linear kinetics, and no effects of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs on the metabolism of lenalidomide. No objective radiographic responses were seen in any of the treated patients. In the group of 24 patients with recurrent glioblastoma, the median time to tumor progression was <2 months and only 12.5% of patients were progression-free at 6 months.
Lenalidomide is well tolerated in patients with recurrent glioma in doses up to 20 mg/m(2). Treatment may be associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic disease. Preliminary data suggest that single agent activity may be limited in patients with recurrent glioblastoma at the doses evaluated although larger studies will be needed to confirm these observations.
- SourceAvailable from: Vincenzo Petrozza
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- "Despite these results enzastaurin showed a good safety and had a better hematologic toxicity profile . Many other antiangiogenics have also been tested in clinical trials              (Table 2). These studies showed encouraging results and are expected to improve the prognosis of HHG. "
ABSTRACT: Adult high grade gliomas (HGG) are the most frequent and fatal primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Despite recent advances in the knowledge of the pathology and the molecular features of this neoplasm, its prognosis remains poor. In the last years temozolomide (TMZ) has dramatically changed the life expectancy of these patients: the association of this drug with radiotherapy (RT), followed by TMZ alone, is the current standard of care. However, malignant gliomas often remain resistant to chemotherapy (CHT). Therefore, preclinical and clinical research efforts have been directed on identifying and understanding the different mechanisms of chemo-resistance operating in this subset of tumors,in order to develop effective strategies to overcome resistance. Moreover, the evidence of alterations in signal transduction pathways underlying tumor progression, has increased the number of trials investigating molecular target agents, such as anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. The purpose of this review is to point out the current standard of treatment and to explore new available target therapies in HGG.Current cancer drug targets 07/2012; 12(8):1016-31. DOI:10.2174/156800912803251207 · 3.58 Impact Factor
Article: [Chemotherapy].[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer has been evolving so extensively than ever. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been a pivotal and a single active agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Reproducing and consistent better response rate has been shown since the introduction of the concept of biochemical modulation of 5-FU by leucovorin, a reduced folate, to the clinic and a combination chemotherapy of 5-FU and leucovorin (FL) has enable us to obtain a response rate around 20-30% and a median survival time ranging from 10 to 12 months. IFL regimen combing CPT-11 with FL showed a better MST ranging from 14 to 15 months, but now serious toxicity precludes general use outside of clinical trials. In the Europe, de Gramont regimen, an unique dose and schedule of 5-FU using a combination of continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU with leucovorin over two days and bolus infusion of 5-FU twice over the same period, has been developed and shown improved antitumor activity and toxic profiles. FOLFOX 4, a combination chemotherapy of de Gramont regimen and oxaliplatin which is a third generation of cisplatin and a uniqe toxic profile with neuropathy, has demonstrated improved MST over a year and acceptable toxic profiles. Now FOLFOX 4 is considered to be a standard chemotherapy for the patients with advanced colorectal cancer, since a large phase III randomized study has shown that FOLFOX 4 was the most active and less toxic treatment regimen among active regimens such as IFL and IROX (CPT-11 and oxaliplatin). More recently, a combination of IFL and bevacizumab which is one of the molecular target agents and a antibody agent against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has demonstrated better MST reaching 20 months. Future large scale trials will attempt to develop more active regimen incorporating so-called molecular target agents.Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 06/2004; 31(5):706-11.
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ABSTRACT: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m(2)/d. The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m(2)/d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2008; 73(1):222-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.03.046 · 4.18 Impact Factor