The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/cognate CC chemokine receptor 2 system affects cell motility in cultured human podocytes.
ABSTRACT In crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is overexpressed within the glomeruli, and MCP-1 blockade has renoprotective effects. Adult podocytes are in a quiescent state, but acquisition of a migratory/proliferative phenotype has been described in crescentic GN and implicated in crescent formation. The cognate CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), the MCP-1 receptor, is expressed by other cell types besides monocytes and has been implicated in both cell proliferation and migration. We investigated whether MCP-1 binding to CCR2 can induce a migratory/proliferative response in cultured podocytes. MCP-1 binding to CCR2 enhanced podocyte chemotaxis/haptotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner and had a modest effect on cell proliferation. Closure of a wounded podocyte monolayer was delayed by CCR2 blockade, and CCR2 was overexpressed at the wound edge, suggesting a role for CCR2 in driving podocyte migration. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney biopsies from patients with crescentic GN demonstrated CCR2 expression in both podocytes and cellular crescents, confirming the clinical relevance of our in vitro findings. In conclusion, the MCP-1/CCR2 system is functionally active in podocytes and may be implicated in the migratory events triggered by podocyte injury in crescentic GN and other glomerular diseases.
Article: Glomerular expression of C-C chemokines in different types of human crescentic glomerulonephritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) presents a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis clinically, in which macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism of macrophage recruitment and activation has not been fully elucidated. C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and beta (MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta), are major chemoattractants for macrophages. We attempted to study the expression of C-C chemokines and their correlation with CD68-positive macrophages in crescentic glomeruli to investigate further their possible roles in crescent formation and progression to fibrosis in different types of human CGN. The expression of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and CD68 was detected in glomeruli with different forms of crescents (cellular, fibrocellular and fibrous crescents) by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of renal biopsies taken from 32 patients with biopsy-proven CGN including eight patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease (type I CGN), 12 patients with immune complex-mediated CGN (type II CGN) and another 12 patients with pauci-immune CGN (type III CGN) enrolled in this study. Eight normal human kidneys were obtained from cadaveric renal transplant donors whose kidneys were technically unsuitable for transplantation, serving as controls. MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and CD68 were undetectable in glomeruli of normal kidney. In crescentic biopsies, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and CD68 were detected in fibrocellular crescents and were even more prominent in cellular crescents, but were undetectable in fibrous crescents. Using consecutive sections for staining, it was demonstrated that a high proportion of infiltrating CD68-positive macrophages, mainly localized to the area of the expression of chemokines, were MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta positive in crescents. Chemokines were expressed mainly by CD68-positive macrophages and parietal epithelial cells in crescents. The number of MCP-1- and MIP-1alpha-positive cells in glomeruli with cellular crescents was positively correlated with the number of CD68-positive cells (r = 0.568 and 0.749, respectively, both P < 0.01). The number of MCP-1- and MIP-1alpha-positive cells and the incidence of Bowman's capsule rupture in glomeruli of patients with type I CGN were higher than those of type II and type III CGN. These observations suggest that the expressed C-C chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, may mediate the inflammatory process of crescent formation and progression to fibrosis. The strong correlation of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha with infiltrating macrophages within glomeruli with cellular crescents suggested that these chemokines might be of particular importance for macrophage recruitment to this site. MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were correlated to type I CGN with its more severe inflammatory course and worse prognosis. The variance of glomerular expression of C-C chemokines may contribute to the difference in histopathological features and prognosis in these three types of CGN.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/2003; 18(8):1526-34. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived cells are known to play important roles in repair/regeneration of injured tissues, but their roles in pathological fibrosis are less clear. Here, we report a critical role for the chemokine receptor CCR2 in the recruitment and activation of lung fibrocytes (CD45(+), CD13(+), collagen 1(+), CD34(-)). Lung fibrocytes were isolated in significantly greater numbers from airspaces of fluorescein isothiocyanate-injured CCR2(+/+) mice than from CCR2(-/-) mice. Transplant of CCR2(+/+) bone marrow into CCR2(-/-) recipients restored recruitment of lung fibrocytes and susceptibility to fibrosis. Ex vivo PKH-26-labeled CCR2(+/+) lung fibrocytes also migrated to injured airspaces of CCR2(-/-) recipients in vivo. Isolated lung fibrocytes expressed CCR2 and migrated to CCL2, and CCL2 stimulated collagen secretion by lung fibrocytes. Fibrocytes could transition into fibroblasts in vitro, and this transition was associated with loss of CCR2 expression and enhanced production of collagen 1. This is the first report describing expression of CCR2 on lung fibrocytes and demonstrating that CCR2 regulates both recruitment and activation of these cells after respiratory injury.American Journal Of Pathology 04/2005; 166(3):675-84. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic glomerulosclerosis is defined by increased glomerular extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mainly synthesized by mesangial cells that underwent an activation mediated by cytokines and growth factors from various cellular origins. In this study, we tested whether macrophages could infiltrate the glomeruli and influence ECM synthesis in experimental diabetes. To test our hypothesis, we initially studied the dynamics of glomerular macrophage recruitment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at days 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, and 30 by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on isolated glomeruli and immunohistochemistry and morphometry. We then assessed the role of macrophages on the basis of the pharmacological modulation of their recruitment by insulin or ACE inhibitor treatments and by X-irradiation-induced macrophage depletion at days 8 and 30. Macrophages were recruited within the glomeruli at the very early phase of hyperglycemia by using RT-PCR CD14 detection from day 2 and by using ED1 immunohistochemistry from day 8. This glomerular macrophage infiltration was associated with an increase in alpha1-chain type IV collagen mRNA. In parallel, the diabetic glomeruli became hypertrophic with an increase in the mesangial area. Macrophage recruitment was preceded by or associated with an increased glomerular expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, which contributes to monocyte diapedesis. Glomerular interleukin-1beta mRNA synthesis was also enhanced as early as day 1 and could be involved in the increase in ECM and adhesion molecule gene expressions. Insulin treatment and irradiation-induced macrophage depletion completely prevented the glomerular macrophage recruitment and decreased alpha1-chain type IV collagen mRNA and mesangial area in diabetic rats, whereas ACE inhibitor treatment had an incomplete effect. It can be concluded that in the streptozotocin model, hyperglycemia is followed by an early macrophage recruitment that contributes to the molecular and structural events that could lead to glomerulosclerosis. Therefore, besides direct stimulation of mesangial cells by hyperglycemia, macrophages recruited in the glomeruli during the early phase of hyperglycemia could secondarily act on mesangial cells.Diabetes 04/2000; 49(3):466-75. · 8.29 Impact Factor