Isolation of a multi-functional endogenous cellulase gene from mollusc, Ampullaria crossean.
ABSTRACT The cellulase genes of some animals, most coding for endo-beta-1,4-glucanases, were found and cloned. There has been no reports about genes encoding exo-beta-1,4-glucanase or endo- -1,4-xylanase from animal. Here we cloned the cDNA of a cellulase designated as EGX from mollusc, Ampullaria crossean, and expressed it in Pichia pastoris for the first time. The cellulase EGX is a multi-functional beta cellulase with the activities of exo-beta-1,4-glucanase, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase. The opening reading frame of EGX cDNA is 1185 bp and encodes 395 amino acids. The EGX gene can also be amplificated from the genomic DNA by PCR, which verified the endogenous origin of this gene. This EGX gene was the first multi-functional cellulase gene that was directly isolated from animals.
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ABSTRACT: The common sea hare Aplysia kurodai is known to be a good source for the enzymes degrading seaweed polysaccharides. Recently four cellulases, i.e., 95, 66, 45, and 21 kDa enzymes, were isolated from A. kurodai (Tsuji et al., 2013). The former three cellulases were regarded as glycosyl-hydrolase-family 9 (GHF9) enzymes, while the 21 kDa cellulase was suggested to be a GHF45 enzyme. The 21 kDa cellulase was significantly heat stable, and appeared to be advantageous in performing heterogeneous expression and protein-engineering study. In the present study, we determined some enzymatic properties of the 21 kDa cellulase and cloned its cDNA to provide the basis for the protein engineering study of this cellulase. The purified 21 kDa enzyme, termed AkEG21 in the present study, hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose with an optimal pH and temperature at 4.5 and 40°C, respectively. AkEG21 was considerably heat-stable, i.e., it was not inactivated by the incubation at 55°C for 30 min. AkEG21 degraded phosphoric-acid-swollen cellulose producing cellotriose and cellobiose as major end products but hardly degraded oligosaccharides smaller than tetrasaccharide. This indicated that AkEG21 is an endolytic β-1,4-glucanase (EC 22.214.171.124). A cDNA of 1013 bp encoding AkEG21 was amplified by PCR and the amino-acid sequence of 197 residues was deduced. The sequence comprised the initiation Met, the putative signal peptide of 16 residues for secretion and the catalytic domain of 180 residues, which lined from the N-terminus in this order. The sequence of the catalytic domain showed 47-62% amino-acid identities to those of GHF45 cellulases reported in other mollusks. Both the catalytic residues and the N-glycosylation residues known in other GHF45 cellulases were conserved in AkEG21. Phylogenetic analysis for the amino-acid sequences suggested the close relation between AkEG21 and fungal GHF45 cellulases.Frontiers in Chemistry 08/2014; 2:60. DOI:10.3389/fchem.2014.00060
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ABSTRACT: While it is widely accepted that most animals (Metazoa) do not have endogenous cellulases, relying instead on intestinal symbionts for cellulose digestion, the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) cellulases found in the genomes of termites, abalone, and sea squirts could be an exception. Using information from expressed sequence tags, we show that GHF9 genes (subgroup E2) are widespread in Metazoa because at least 11 classes in five phyla have expressed GHF9 cellulases. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic GHF9 gene families are ancient, forming distinct monophyletic groups in plants and animals. As several intron positions are also conserved between four metazoan phyla then, contrary to the still widespread belief that cellulases were horizontally transferred to animals relatively recently, GHF9 genes must derive from an ancient ancestor. We also found that sequences isolated from the same animal phylum tend to group together, and in some deuterostomes, GHF9 genes are characterized by substitutions in catalytically important sites. Several paralogous subfamilies of GHF9 can be identified in plants, and genes from primitive species tend to arise basally to angiosperm representatives. In contrast, GHF9 subgroup E2 genes are relatively rare in bacteria.Molecular Biology and Evolution 06/2005; 22(5):1273-84. DOI:10.1093/molbev/msi107 · 14.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, AC-EG65, with a molecular mass of 65 kDa, was purified from the gastric juice of the mollusc, Ampullaria crossean, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. AC-EG65 showed specific carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 13.3 U/mg protein and the optimal pH and temperature of the activity were pH 5.5-6.5 and 50-55 degrees C, respectively. From the cDNA library of A. crossean stomach tissue, eight endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes with high similarity were successfully cloned based on the partial amino acid sequences of AC-EG65 and were classified into 3 groups: eg65-a, eg65-b, and eg65-c. The open reading frames of the groups eg65-a, eg65-b, and eg65-c were 2142 bp, 2171 bp, and 2169 bp in length, encoding 713, 723 and 722 amino acids, respectively. The eight deduced proteins consisted of a family II carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2) and a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) catalytic domain. More than 98% amino acid identities were shared within the same group and more than 87% sequence identities among the groups. The endogenous origins of these EGase genes were supported by PCR amplification using ovary genomic DNA as template.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 04/2009; 153(2):149-56. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpb.2009.02.011 · 1.90 Impact Factor