Life-course origins of social inequalities in metabolic risk in the population of a developing country

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 02/2008; 167(4):419-28. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm329
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In countries that have been industrialized for a long time, but not always elsewhere, low socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with ischemic heart disease in men. The authors hypothesized that socioeconomic development could, via pubertal sex steroids, promote an atherogenic lipid profile and body shape in men but not in women. Therefore, they examined the associations of SEP with ischemic heart disease risk in a developing-country population. The authors used multivariable regression to examine the associations of SEP with the metabolic syndrome and its components in 9,746 Chinese adults aged >/=50 years from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study, phase 2, recruited in 2005-2006. After adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity, high SEP at each of three life stages, proxied by parental possesions in childhood, education, and longest held-occupation, was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome in women but not in men. Higher SEP in men was associated with lower pulse pressure and fasting plasma glucose level but also with greater waist circumference and a lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. With socioeconomic development, diet-related hormonal changes at puberty may outweigh the usual protective effect of social advantage in men, with corresponding implications for boys currently undergoing the nutrition transition in the developing world.

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117034 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study documents whether socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in biological risk are more widely observed and larger in the United States than Taiwan.
    Journal of Aging and Health 06/2014; 27(1). DOI:10.1177/0898264314538661 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo examine whether adulthood and/or childhood sex-specific socio-economic disparities are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components in a developed non-Western setting. Methods Based on the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 14 888 people aged 20 years were analysed to evaluate the effect of adult and childhood socio-economic status on metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds ratios for metabolic syndrome and each component of metabolic syndrome in later life. ResultsThe age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 26.6% for men and 21.3% for women. Compared with the highest level of education, men with the lowest education level were significantly less likely to have metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96), whereas the opposite association was found in women (odds ratio 3.29, 95% CI 2.45-4.42). Men who were manual labourers and economically inactive had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with those with non-manual jobs (odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98 and odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.99, respectively), but the reverse association was observed in women (odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.73 and odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.81, respectively). A significant interaction between combined adulthood and childhood socio-economic status on the presence of metabolic syndrome was observed (P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that sex-specific socio-economic disparities in childhood and adulthood have differential effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Korea.
    Diabetic Medicine 06/2014; 31(11). DOI:10.1111/dme.12525 · 3.06 Impact Factor

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