Increased risk of depressive and anxiety disorders in relatives of patients with Parkinson disease.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.26). 12/2007; 64(12):1385-92. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.12.1385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Relatives of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have an increased risk of PD and other neurologic disorders; however, their risk of psychiatric disorders remains uncertain.
To study the risk of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders among first-degree relatives of patients with PD compared with first-degree relatives of controls.
In a population-based, historical cohort study, we included 1000 first-degree relatives of 162 patients with PD and 850 first-degree relatives of 147 controls. Both patients with PD and controls were representative of the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Documentation of psychiatric disorders was obtained for each relative separately through a combination of telephone interviews with the relatives (or their proxies) and review of their medical records from a records-linkage system (family study method). Psychiatric disorders were defined using clinical criteria from the DSM-IV or routine diagnoses.
We found an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with PD compared with first-degree relatives of controls (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.95; P <.001). In particular, we found an increased risk of depressive disorders (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11-1.89; P = .006) and anxiety disorders (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05-2.28; P = .03). The results were consistent in analyses that adjusted for type of interview, excluded relatives who developed parkinsonism, or excluded relatives who developed both a depressive disorder and an anxiety disorder.
These findings suggest that depressive disorders and anxiety disorders may share familial susceptibility factors with PD.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anxiety is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and contributes to increased disability and poorer quality of life. In spite of its significant impact, the symptomatology, chronology, and neurobiology of anxiety in PD are all poorly understood, and this hinders accurate diagnosis and development of effective treatment strategies. This review investigates and updates literature related to the clinical spectrum of anxiety in PD. The reported prevalence of anxiety in PD varies considerably, with emerging interest in the frequency of the DSM-IV residual category of “Anxiety disorder, not otherwise specified” (Anxiety disorder NOS), which is observed in up to 25% of PD patients. By design, there are no standardized diagnostic criteria for Anxiety disorder NOS, because this is the category applied to individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria for any other current anxiety disorder. Anxiety rating scales incompletely capture anxiety symptoms that relate specifically to PD symptoms and the complications arising from PD therapy. Consequently, these scales have been deemed inappropriate for use in PD, and there remains a need for the development of a new PD-specific anxiety scale. Research establishing accurate symptom profiles of anxiety in PD is sparse, although characterizing such symptomatology would likely improve clinical diagnosis and facilitate targeted treatment strategies. Research into the neurobiological and psychological underpinnings of anxiety in PD remains inconclusive. Anxiety can precede the onset of PD motor symptoms or can develop after a diagnosis of PD. Further investigations focused on the chronology of anxiety and its relationship to PD diagnosis are required. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 07/2014; 29(8). · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, with a constantly increasing prevalence and a high global financial impact arising from direct and indirect costs. Large-scale, observational studies provide data that support the better comprehension of disease aspects, constitute a baseline reference for future studies and assist comparisons among different patient populations, allowing the recognition of distinctive characteristics and special needs. The present study is the first to depict the clinical characteristics and their interplay in a large sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in Greece. Nine hundred eighty six consecutive PD outpatients were recruited from 17 centers around Greece in the time period from 8/2007 to 7/2009 and were examined and interviewed by movement disorders experts. Multiple clinical characteristics were recorded including age at diagnosis, disease severity, patients' self classification of PD symptoms and their relevance to physician's global clinical impression, smoking, alcohol consumption, presence of family history for PD, dementia, depression, hypertension, cancer and other comorbidities. Associations of high clinical significance were found between certain clinical characteristics.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 08/2014; 343(s 1–2):36–40.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depressive disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and influence many other clinical aspects of the disease. In addition to causing inherent emotional distress, depressive disorders negatively impact quality of life, motor and cognitive deficits, functional disability, and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with PD. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of PD depression remains limited. However, clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of medications and psychotherapies for PD depression, underscoring the importance of their timely detection and concerted management.
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 12/2013; 13(12):409. · 3.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014