Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.
ABSTRACT Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing route (i.e., quench cooling and ball milling) on the surface energy heterogeneity and surface chemistry of indomethacin (IMC). Recently developed inverse gas chromatography (IGC) methodology at finite concentrations was employed to determine the surface energy distributions of crystalline, quench cooled and milled IMC samples. Surface properties of crystalline and processed IMC were measurably different as determined by the IGC and other conventional characterization techniques: differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Quench cooled IMC was in fully amorphous form. Milled IMC showed no amorphous character by calorimetric or X-ray diffraction studies. It was demonstrated that both processed IMC samples were energetically more active than the crystalline IMC. In particular, milled IMC exhibited a relatively higher dispersive surface energy and higher surface basicity (electron donor capability). This may be attributed to the creation of surface defect sites or exposure of higher energy crystal facets during the milling process. This study confirms that processing route has notable influence on the surface energy distribution and surface acid-base character. IGC was demonstrated as a powerful technique for investigating surface properties of real-world, heterogeneous pharmaceutical materials.AAPS PharmSciTech 11/2012; · 1.58 Impact Factor
Dataset: GenProd DryingTec 2011
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ABSTRACT: Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a versatile, powerful, sensitive and relatively fast technique for characterizing the physicochemical properties of materials. Due to its applicability in determining surface properties of solids in any form such as films, fibres and powders of both crystalline and amorphous structures, IGC became a popular technique for surface characterization, used extensively soon after its development. One of the most appealing features of IGC that led to its popularity among analytical scientists in early years was its similarity in principle to analytical gas chromatography (GC). The main aspect which distinguishes IGC experiments from conventional GC is the role of mobile and stationary phases. Contrary to conventional GC, the material under investigation is placed in the chromatographic column and a known probe vapour is used to provide information on the surface. In this review, information concerning the history, instrumentation and applications is discussed. Examples of the many experiments developed for IGC method are selected and described. Materials that have been analysed include polymers, pharmaceuticals, minerals, surfactants, and nanomaterials. The properties that can be determined using the IGC technique include enthalpy and entropy of sorption, surface energy (dispersive and specific components), work of co/adhesion, miscibility and solubility parameters, surface heterogeneity, glass transition temperature, and specific surface area.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 10/2014; 212:21.