Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.
ABSTRACT Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution.
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Article: Heterogeneity of carbon fibre[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A range of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pitch based carbon fibre types (high, standard and intermediate modulus fibres) have been characterised using both physical and chemical techniques, the results highlighting the heterogeneity of the fibre. Nano-indentation showed variation in stiffness between different fibres of the same type as well as variation along a 20 μm length of a single fibre. Tensile tests showed variance of approximately 25% in tenacity for three different carbon fibre types but less variability in modulus with values from 8% to 19%. Raman spectroscopy showed variation in the graphitic content both between fibres of different origin as well as variation, with 0.5 μm spatial resolution, along the length of a single fibre. Inverse gas chromatography surface energy measurements of larger samples of fibres were carried out using the novel approach of incremental surface coverage by varying the probe molecule concentration and revealed different levels of energetic heterogeneity for PAN based fibres collected at different stages of carbon fibre production. The heterogeneity of the unoxidised fibres (collected after carbonisation) was restricted to about 15% of the fibre surface whereas the surface oxidised fibre sample (collected after the electrolytic oxidation bath) was heterogeneous over more than 30% and the sized fibres were shown to be quite homogeneous.Carbon 03/2014; 68:240–249. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.10.084
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of surface energy characterization tools such as inverse gas chromatography for the analysis of binary systems. Drug substance was coated with two grades of silicon dioxide and the surface energy characteristics determined using a Surface Energy Analyser. The results demonstrated that the measured dispersive surface energy of such intermediate samples were as a consequence of probe interactions with both constituent components, however, the degree and order of interaction with each species was related to surface energy heterogeneity and surface availability. A method to predict the degree of probe-surface preferentiality within the intermediate samples was applied to the data, demonstrating to closely match the measured data whilst suggesting notable differences in probe-surface preferentiality. Specific probe interactions were also assessed and the results suggested that probe surface preferentiality was not equivalent to that of the dispersive probes, possibly due to differences in ranges of the dispersive/specific forces. An equivalent physically mixed sample was analysed and the results demonstrated that the measured heterogeneity curve mirrored that of the pure drug substance suggesting that the driver for probe interaction is different for the physically mixed and the coated intermediate samples.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 02/2013; 445(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.01.061
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the impact of micronization on the measured surface energy characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), ibipinabant, by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) using both a fixed probe concentration, commonly used in standard IGC methods, and a fixed probe surface coverage approach applied by the surface energy analyzer (SEA), a next generation IGC system. The IGC measurements indicate an initial increase in surface energy, going from un-micronized to micronized, followed by a reduction in surface energy with increasing micronization extent. This was attributable to the change in the retention behaviour of the dispersive probes as a consequence of the change in the probe surface coverage rather than a change in the actual surface energy of the materials being analysed. It was observed in the SEA data that micronization leads to an increase in the measured dispersive surface energy of the drug substance with increasing micronization extent. The increase in surface energy is primarily due to the generation of new, higher energy interaction sites, although a small additional increase is also observed which is related to the increase in the number and distribution of high energy sites. The results demonstrate that in order to obtain comparable surface energetic data between batches with varied surface area, and presumably between different materials, results should be obtained at a specific, and constant, probe surface coverage.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 11/2011; 422(1-2):238-44. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.11.002