Article

Treatment resistant depression--advances in somatic therapies.

University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.53). 01/2007; 19(4):279-87. DOI: 10.1080/10401230701675222
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The failure to achieve remission for patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) represents a major public health concern. Inadequately treated depression is associated with higher rates of relapse, poorer quality of life, deleterious personal and societal economic ramifications, as well as increased mortality rates. Unfortunately, only a minority of patients achieves this goal with initial antidepressant treatment and by convention, failure to achieve response after two adequate trials of antidepressant therapy defines "Treatment Resistant Depression" (TRD). Furthermore, results from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) group of studies suggest that approximately 50% of "real world" patients who meet criteria for MDD fail to achieve remission, even after four carefully monitored sequenced treatments.
Given these limitations of existing antidepressant medications alone and in combination, together with improved understanding of the neural circuitry of depression, it is not surprising that there is a renewed interest in neuromodulation strategies for TRD.
The purpose of this article is to review the evidence for the inclusion of various non-pharmacological, neuromodulatory strategies for TRD. Specifically, information regarding the mechanism, tolerability and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in ameliorating TRD will be presented.
Although these treatments are at various stages of clinical development, they represent a new frontier in expanding the treatment options available for individuals with TRD, as well as contributing to a better understanding the neurobiology of depressive disorders.

0 Followers
 · 
138 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the association between type of multimorbidity and CAM use among adults with multimorbidity. Methods. The current study used a cross-sectional design with retrospective data from 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Multimorbidity was classified into two groups: (1) adults with coexisting physical and mental illnesses and (2) adults with two or more chronic physical illnesses only. CAM use was measured using a set of 18 variables. Logistic regression and multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess the association between the type of multimorbidity and ever used CAM, CAM use in the past 12 months, and type of CAM. Results. Overall, 31.2% of adults with coexisting physical and mental illnesses and 20.1% of adults with only physical illnesses used CAM in the past 12 months. Adults with coexisting physical and mental illnesses were more likely to ever use CAM (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.49, 1.90), use CAM in the past 12 months (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.52), and use mind-body therapies in the past 12 months (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.59) compared to adults with only physical illnesses. Conclusion. Multimorbidity of chronic physical and mental illnesses was associated with higher CAM use.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:362582. DOI:10.1155/2015/362582 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Of major depression patients, 29% to 66% show only partial remission on a single antidepressant trial. Such patients are characterized by residual depressive symptoms such as anhedonia, psychic anxiety, sleep disturbance, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the neural mechanisms of partially remitted depression remain unclear. Using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) approach, we investigated the intrinsic neural oscillation alterations during resting state in partially remitted depression. A total of 23 partially remitted depression patients and 68 healthy controls underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging for functional imaging. We compared ALFF differences between groups as well as correlations between clinical measurements and ALFF measurements in the brain regions showing significant group differences. Compared with healthy controls, partially remitted depression patients showed increased ALFF measurements in the left ventral anterior insula, bilateral posterior insula, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus, and decreased ALFF measurements in the left calcarine gyrus. A trend positive correlation was found between the number of depressive episodes and ALFF values in the right posterior insula in the partially remitted depression group. In addition, the ALFF values of the right supramarginal gyrus were negatively correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Consistent with the emerging theory of the role of the salience network in sensing the changes of homeostasis in contributing to partially remitted depression, the current findings suggest that the increased intrinsic neural oscillation of the insula may be related to the refractoriness to treatment and might be an imaging marker for predicting future depression recurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain Research 12/2014; 1599. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.12.040 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being investigated as a therapeutic alternative for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but its cognitive safety has been scarcely explored. The aim of this exploratory study is to evaluate cognitive function of patients before and after deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (SCG). Eight treatment-resistant depressed patients were implanted in subgenual cingulate gyrus. A neuropsychological battery was used to evaluate patients before surgery and 1-year after. A matched group of eight first-episode patients was also assessed. A MANOVA was performed for each cognitive domain and those tests showing main time effects were then correlated with depressive symptoms and with medication load. There were significant group and time effects for memory and a group effect for language. No significant interactions between groups or cognitive domains were observed. Medication load was negatively correlated with memory at time 1, and clinical change negatively correlated with memory improvement. These findings support the cognitive safety of DBS of subgenual cingulate gyrus, as cognitive function did not worsen after chronic stimulation and memory performance even improved. The results, though, should be interpreted cautiously given the small sample size and the fact that some treatment-resistant patients received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) before implantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.076 · 2.68 Impact Factor