Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use patterns among youth in Canada

Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2L7.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.96). 06/2008; 19(4):361-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-007-9095-4
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ABSTRACT The authors characterized changes in the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use over time, and examined age of onset, co-morbid use and sociodemographic factors associated with ever using alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Data were collected from students in grades 7-9 as part of the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 19,018 in 2002; n = 29,243 in 2004). Descriptive analyses examined age of onset, co-morbid substance use and changes over time. Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with ever trying alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana with the 2004 data. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance used by youth and it was also the only substance which exhibited increased rates of use between 2002 and 2004. Co-morbid substance use was common, and it was rare to find youth who had used marijuana or tobacco without also having tried alcohol. As expected, youth who had poorer school performance were more likely to drink and smoke marijuana or tobacco, as were youth with more disposable income. Such timely and relevant data are important for guiding future policy, programming, and surveillance activities.

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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to identify factors associated with regular cigarette smoking among adolescents. The sample included 517 public school 9th graders in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information, including social and demographic characteris-tics, social relations, and health risk behaviors. Logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis, with significance set at 5%. 8.9% of the adolescents reported smoking at least one cigarette a day in the previous 30 days. Age ≥ 15 years (OR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.21-4.32; p = 0.011) and having friends that smoked (OR = 12.62; 95%CI: 4.44-35.89; p < 0.0001) were associated with regular smoking in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Meanwhile, gender, race, social class, living with father and mother, reli-gion, maternal education, having tried alcohol, physical activity, and paid work were not asso-ciated with smoking. These findings support the development of community-based tobacco con-trol strategies targeting adolescents.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies.
    Journal of Behavioural Addictions 06/2014; 3(2):90-101. DOI:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.009
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    ABSTRACT: Hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among youth and young adults and has been identified as an emerging threat to public health. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian college students.METHODS: This study took place in Tabriz (northwest of Iran) in April and May 2011. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1837 college students. Data was collected in a survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure religious belief, parental support and risk taking behaviors including hookah smoking. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of hookah smoking was 8.5% (CI95%: 7.3-9.9). After adjustment, being male (OR= 2.01), living in single house in comparison with living with parents (OR= 2.22), smoking (OR= 5.96) and ever drug abuse (OR= 3.02) were factors associated with students' hookah use.CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a low prevalence of hookah smoking in Iranian college female students and revealed some of its associated factors. We demonstrated the co-occurrence of risky behaviors which emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing different high risk behaviors simultaneously.

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