Survey of Airborne Polyfluorinated Telomers in Keihan Area, Japan

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Yoshida Konoe, Kyoto, Sakyo 6068501, Japan.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.26). 03/2008; 80(2):102-6. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-007-9324-2
Source: PubMed


Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are environmental contaminants posing special public health concerns because of their long-term persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment. Fluorotelomer alcohols are volatile and may undergo long-range transport. Air samples were collected at five sites in the Keihan area, Japan: Sakyo, Morinomiya and three sites in Higashiyodogawa. Except for Higashiyodogawa, the highest concentrations of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were for 8:2 FTOH (median 447 pg m(-3)) followed by 10:2 FTOH (56 pg m(-3)) and 6:2 FTOH (22 pg m(-3)). In contrast, 8:2 FTOAcryl (median 865 pg m(-3)) and 8:2 FTOH (1,864 pg m(-3)) were both major components in Higashiyodogawa. Compared to data published for North America and Europe, 8:2 FTOH levels are significantly higher in Keihan, suggesting a possible point source.

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Available from: Akio Koizumi, Oct 21, 2014
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    • "[24] Of these precursors, the FTAcrs are reported to be the largest category of commercial polyfluorinated products, [25] and have been found in atmospheric, rain water, and surface water samples at concentrations up to 3 pg L -1 , 0.5 ng L -1 , and 0.2 ng L -1 , respectively, with concentrations that are strongly correlated with point sources. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] FTPEs are exploited for their hydro-and oleo-phobic nature in food packaging, and can migrate into food products. [31] [32] In addition, these compounds are also approved as additives in pesticide mixtures, [32] are found in human sera, consumer products, and waste water sludge [33] -indicating they are widely present in environmental systems -and can be biologically converted into FTOHs and ultimately oxidized to PFCAs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature dependent rate constants were estimated for the acid- and base-catalyzed and neutral hydrolysis reactions of perfluorinated telomer acrylates (FTAcrs) and phosphate esters (FTPEs), and the SN1 and SN2 hydrolysis reactions of fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs). Under some environmental conditions, hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs could be rapid (half-lives of several years in marine systems and as low as several days in some landfills) and represent a dominant portion of their overall degradation. Abiotic hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs may be a significant contributor to current environmental loadings of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Polymeric FTAcrs are expected to be hydrolyzed more slowly, with estimated half-lives in soil and natural waters ranging between several centuries to several millenia absent additional surface area limitations on reactivity. Poor agreement was found between the limited experimental data on FTPE hydrolysis and computational estimates, requiring more detailed experimental data before any further modeling can occur on these compounds or their perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanol phosphate ester (PFSamPE) analogs. FTIs are expected to have hydrolytic half-lives of about 130 days in most natural waters, suggesting they may be contributing to substantial FTOH and PFCA inputs in aquatic systems. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFSams) appear unlikely to undergo abiotic hydrolysis at the S-N, C-S, or N-C linkages under environmentally relevant conditions, although potentially facile S-N hydrolysis via intramolecular catalysis by ethanol and acetic acid amide substituents warrants further investigation.
    Nature Precedings 09/2009;
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    • "These perfluorinated compounds have been detected globally in wildlife (Falandysz et al., 2006; Gannon et al., 2006; Houde et al., 2006; Kim and Kannan, 2007; Sinclair et al., 2006) and humans (Calafat et al., 2007a, b; Fei et al., 2007; Olsen et al., 2004, 2007; Tao et al. 2008). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and certain perfluorochemicals have become a public health concern in recent years as studies have revealed their environmental persistence (De Silva and Mabury, 2004; Oono et al., 2008; Skutlarek et al., 2006; Trudel et al., 2008), and as data have emerged about their toxicity in laboratory animals (George and Andersen, 1986; Harris et al., 1989; Jensen and Leffers, 2008; Langley, 1990; Lau et al., 2004; Son et al., 2008; Starkov and Wallace, 2002; Van Rafelghem et al., 1987; Wei et al., 2008; Wolf et al., 2008). Liver is thought to be a prime target organ of PFOA and related perfluorochemicals, due to efficient hepatic uptake and persistence in liver (George and Andersen, 1986; Van Rafelghem et al., 1987; Vanden Heuvel et al., 1991a, b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) have been detected globally in wildlife and humans. Data from a gene array indicate that PFOA decreases organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) in liver. Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are major transporters responsible for uptake of bile acids (BAs) and other organic compounds into liver. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of two perfluorinated fatty acids, PFOA and PFDA, on mRNA and protein expression of hepatic uptake transporters Oatps and Ntcp, and to determine the underlying regulatory mechanisms by using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane-X receptor, NF-E2-related factor 2, and farnesoid X receptor-null mouse models. After 2 days following a single i.p. administration, PFOA did not alter serum BA concentrations, but PFDA increased serum BA concentrations 300%. Furthermore, PFOA decreased mRNA and protein expression of Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2, but not Ntcp in mouse liver. In contrast, PFDA decreased mRNA and protein expression of all four transporters, and decreased the mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, with the decrease of Oatp1a4 occurring at lower doses than the other three transporters. Multiple mechanisms are likely involved in the down-regulation of mouse Oatps and Ntcp by PFDA. By using the various transcription factor-null mice, PPAR-alpha was shown to play a central role in the down-regulation of Oatp1a1, 1a4, 1b2, and Ntcp by PFDA. The current studies provide important insight into understanding the mechanisms by which PFDA regulate the expression of hepatic uptake transporters. In conclusion, PFOA and PFDA decrease mouse liver uptake transporters primarily via activation of PPAR-alpha.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2008; 106(1):37-45. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfn161 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    • "Surfactants can also be dispersed in aerosols (e.g. Oono et al. 2008). Since the San Juan Islands are located mid-way between three major urban areas, Seattle, Vancouver and Victoria, it is possible that airborne deposition is significant, although we did not have the means to try to distinguish airborne from local signals. "
    Russel Barsh · Jack Bell · Hannah Halliday · Marie Clifford · Geneva Mottet · R Barsh · J Bell · H Halliday · M Clifford · G Mottet
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