Antidiabetic zinc(II)-N-acetyl-L-cysteine complex: evaluations of in vitro insulinomimetic and in vivo blood glucose-lowering activities.
ABSTRACT The diabetic state is known to induce oxidative stress in its mechanism, which in turn is responsible for the complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, we found that Zn(II) complexes have in vitro insulinomimetic and in vivo blood glucose-lowering activities. During our study on the development of new Zn(II) complexes with antioxidative ligands involving L-cysteine, L-cysteine-methylester, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (nac), we found a new (N-acetyl-L-cysteinato)Zn(II) (Zn(nac)) complex by evaluating of both its in vitro insulinomimetic and in vivo potencies. The insulinomimetic activity of Zn(nac) with respect to the inhibition of free fatty acid release in isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine was higher than that of a well-known insulinomimetic VOSO4, being equivalent to that of ZnSO4. The blood glucose level of hyperglycemic KK-Ay mice with type 2 DM was reduced by daily intraperitoneal injections of Zn(nac) for 28 days. Their serum insulin, HbA1c, TCHO, and UN levels were remarkably decreased, indicating that Zn(nac) improved the insulin resistance of the mice. The improvement of DM by Zn(nac) was also confirmed by the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, Zn(nac) complex is proposed to attenuate both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in KK-Ay mice by decreasing serum insulin, HbA1c, UN, and TCHO levels.
- Diabetologia 10/1996; 39(9):1005-29. · 6.49 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of oxidant stress in the causation of chronic tissue damage is being increasingly recognized. Oxidant stress is usually countered by abundant supply of antioxidants. If concomitant antioxidant deficiency occurs, oxidant stress may produce tissue damage. We took up a study on antioxidant status in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with and without retinopathy and compared them with a control non-diabetic group. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in all diabetic patients, i.e., those with and without retinopathy. However, the lowest levels were found in the diabetic patients with retinopathy. Vitamin E and vitamin C levels were also markedly lower in the diabetic patients. There was a paradoxical rise in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the diabetic patients with retinopathy. This may be a compensatory mechanism by the body to prevent tissue damage by increasing the levels of the two alternative antioxidant enzymes.Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 01/1995; · 1.02 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to find orally active Zn(II) complexes that can treat diabetes mellitus (DM) at low doses, four new Zn(II)-dithiocarbamate complexes with Zn(II)-sulfur coordination bonds were prepared and their in vitro insulinomimetic activity and in vivo anti-diabetic ability were evaluated. Among the Zn(II)-dithiocarbamate complexes, the bis(pyrrolidine-N-dithiocarbamate)zinc(II) (Zn(pdc)(2)) complex was found to be the most effective in terms of inhibiting free fatty acid-release and enhancing glucose-uptake in adipocytes. After oral administration of the Zn(pdc)(2) complex to KK-A(y) mice with obesity and type 2 DM, we observed that the high blood glucose levels in the mice were lowered from approximately 500 mg/dL to 350 mg/dL within 6 days, and the effect was maintained during the administration period. Also, indicators of insulin resistance such as serum insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels were also reduced compared with those in untreated mice. Moreover, the Zn(pdc)(2) complex improved not only the hypertension in the mice, but also the adiponectin level in the serum. On the basis of the results, the Zn(pdc)(2) complex is proposed to improve hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in type 2 DM animals on daily oral administrations.Life Sciences 02/2007; 80(8):759-66. · 2.56 Impact Factor