Family-based association study of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Han population of Taiwan.
ABSTRACT Graves' disease (GD) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disorder inherited as a complex trait. Although there has not been consensus regarding the genuine susceptibility alleles, many population-based genetic studies showed association of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) gene with GD. In contrast, evidence utilizing family-based studies came only from the Caucasian population. Here we performed a family-based association study in the Han population in Taiwan. We enrolled 374 affected individuals and 347 unaffected family members in 151 GD pedigrees. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and a short tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP) at CTLA4 were genotyped. Association of GD with a novel risk SNP at the 5' upstream region, CTLA4_-1722_T/C (rs733618), was demonstrated (P=0.0096). We also replicated the association signal of a coding SNP, CTLA4_+49_G/A (rs231775, P=0.0219). A common haplotype composed of CTLA4_-1722_T/C and CTLA4_(AT)n (an STRP marker: UniSTS:48500) showed protective effect (P=0.0004). Our results of family-based association study, taken together with those from the Caucasian population, provide evidence that CTLA4 confers susceptibility to GD across different ethnic backgrounds.
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases cause significant and chronic morbidity and disability. The actual number of persons in the United States that are affected by autoimmune diseases and the resultant magnitude of their impact on the public's health are limited to a few specific diseases. In order to understand the clinical, public health and economic importance of these diseases it is necessary to have estimates of incidence and prevalence rates in the population. In this analysis, we estimate the number of persons affected by 24 autoimmune diseases in the United States by applying mean weighted prevalence and incidence rates obtained from published articles to U. S. Census data. The study was restricted to 24 autoimmune predefined diseases for which there was direct or indirect evidence for autoimmune pathogenesis. Subsequently, we used computerized search software and ancestry searching (bibliographies) to conduct a comprehensive search of articles published from 1965 to the present. Eligible studies included those which adhered to standard disease definitions and which included population-based estimates of incidence or prevalence rates. Mean weighted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated from eligible published studies with greater weight proportionately given to larger studies. The mean rates were then applied to the U.S. Census population figures to estimate the number of persons currently afflicted with each disease and the number of new cases occurring each year in the United States. Only U.S. and European studies were used to estimate prevalence and incidence rates when there were at least six eligible studies available for a disease. When there were fewer than six studies, all available studies were included, regardless of country of origin. The number of eligible incidence and prevalence studies found in the literature varied considerably between the 24 autoimmune diseases selected. The largest number of eligible prevalence studies were conducted on multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (>/=23), followed by insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), myasthenia gravis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and scleroderma (>/=7). There were only one to four eligible studies done on 11 other diseases, and no prevalence studies on 6 diseases. Incidence studies were less frequent but the largest number of studies were conducted on IDDM (n = 37) and MS (n = 28), followed by Graves' disease/hyperthyroidism, glomerulonephritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE (>/=9). On the other 11 diseases, there were one to six eligible studies, and no studies on 5 diseases. There were no eligible incidence or prevalence studies on Goodpasture's syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, or relapsing polychondritis. Overall we estimate that 8,511,845 persons in the United States or approximately 1 in 31 Americans are currently afflicted with one of these autoimmune diseases. The diseases with the highest prevalence rates were Graves'/hyperthyroidism, IDDM, pernicious anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, and vitiligo, comprising an estimated 7,939, 280 people or 93% of the total number estimated. Glomerulonephritis, MS, and SLE added an estimated 323,232 people. The prevalence of the other diseases reviewed were rare, less than 5.14/100,000. Most diseases were more common in women. From the incidence data we estimate that 237,203 Americans will develop an autoimmune disease in 1996 and that approximately 1,186,015 new cases of these autoimmune diseases occur in the United States every 5 years. Women were at 2.7 times greater risk than men to acquire an autoimmune disease. After reviewing the medical literature for incidence and prevalence rates of 24 autoimmune diseases, we conclude that many autoimmune diseases are infrequently studied by epidemiologists. As a result the total burden of disease may be an underestimate. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 09/1997; 84(3):223-43.
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ABSTRACT: Great efforts and expense have been expended in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Concomitantly, technology for detection and scoring of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has undergone rapid development, extensive catalogues of SNPs across the genome have been constructed, and SNPs have been increasingly used as a means for investigation of the genetic causes of complex human diseases. For many diseases, population-based studies of unrelated individuals--in which case-control and cohort studies serve as standard designs for genetic association analysis--can be the most practical and powerful approach. However, extensive debate has arisen about optimum study design, and considerable concern has been expressed that these approaches are prone to population stratification, which can lead to biased or spurious results. Over the past decade, a great shift has been noted, away from case-control and cohort studies, towards family-based association designs. These designs have fewer problems with population stratification but have greater genotyping and sampling requirements, and data can be difficult or impossible to gather. We discuss past evidence for population stratification on genotype-phenotype association studies, review methods to detect and account for it, and present suggestions for future study design and analysis.The Lancet 03/2003; 361(9357):598-604. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) acts as a potent negative regulator of T-cell response, and has been suggested as a pivotal candidate gene for autoimmune disorders such as Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes and autoimmune hypothyroidism, among others. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been proposed as the susceptibility variants, or to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the variant. Nevertheless, contradictory results have been found, which may be due to lack of knowledge of the genetic structure of CTLA4 and its geographic variation. We have typed 17 SNPs throughout the CTLA4 gene region in order to analyze the haplotype diversity and LD structure in a worldwide population set (1262 individuals from 44 populations) to understand the variation pattern of the region. Allele and haplotype frequency differentiation between populations is consistent with genomewide averages and points to a lack of strong population-specific selection pressures. LD is high and its pattern is not significantly different within or between continents. However, haplotype composition is significantly different between geographical groups. A continent-specific set of haplotype tagging SNPs has been designed to be used for future association studies. These are portable among populations, although their efficiency might vary depending on the population haplotype spectrum.Genes and Immunity 01/2006; 6(8):646-57. · 3.68 Impact Factor