Ankle Injuries Among United States High School Sports Athletes, 2005–2006

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
Journal of athletic training (Impact Factor: 2.02). 09/2007; 42(3):381-7.
Source: PubMed


Ankle injuries are the most common sport-related injuries. To date, no studies have been published that use national data to present a cross-sport, cross-sex analysis of ankle injuries among US high school athletes.
To investigate the incidence rates of ankle injuries by sex, type of exposure, and sport.
Descriptive epidemiologic study.
One hundred US high schools.
United States high school athletes.
We reviewed ankle injury data collected over the 2005-2006 school year from a nationally representative sample obtained by High School RIO, an injury surveillance system. Specific sports studied were boys' football, boys' and girls' soccer, girls' volleyball, boys' and girls' basketball, boys' wrestling, boys' baseball, and girls' softball.
An estimated 326 396 ankle injuries occurred nationally in 2005-2006, yielding an injury rate of 5.23 ankle injuries per 10 000 athlete-exposures. Ankle injuries occurred at a significantly higher rate during competition (9.35 per 10 000 athlete-exposures) than during practice (3.63) (risk ratio = 2.58; 95% confidence interval = 2.26, 2.94; P < .001). Boys' basketball had the highest rate of ankle injury (7.74 per 10 000 athlete-exposures), followed by girls' basketball (6.93) and boys' football (6.52). In all sports except girls' volleyball, rates of ankle injury were higher in competition than in practice. Overall, most ankle injuries were diagnosed as ligament sprains with incomplete tears (83.4%). Ankle injuries most commonly caused athletes to miss less than 7 days of activity (51.7%), followed by 7 to 21 days of activity loss (33.9%) and more than 22 days of activity loss (10.5%).
Sports that combine jumping in close proximity to other players and swift changes of direction while running are most often associated with ankle injuries. Future research on ankle injuries is needed to drive the development and implementation of more effective preventive interventions.

Full-text preview

Available from:
    • "Ankle sprains are the most common injury incurred during sports activities (Collins, Teys, & Vicenzino, 2004; Morrison & Kaminski, 2007) and it has been reported that during the period from 2005 to 2006 ankle sprains accounted for 22.6% of all sports injuries in adolescent high school athletes (Nelson, Collins, Yard, Fields, & Comstock, 2007). It is estimated that between 20% and 40% of ankle sprains will result in chronic ankle instability (CAI) with up to 70% reported in specific sports such as basketball (Valderrabano, Wiewiorski, Frigg, Hintermann, & Leumann, 2007; Valderrabano et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Free download until 18 fer, 2015 in,XMZM2EIs Objective To compare the effect of two manual therapy techniques, mobilization with movement (WB-MWM) and talocrural manipulation (HVLA), for the improvement of ankle dorsiflexion in people with chronic ankle instability (CAI) over 48 hours. Design randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory. Participants Fifty-two participants (mean±SD age, 20.7±3.4 years) with CAI were randomized to WB-MWM (n=18), HVLA (n=19) or placebo group (n=15). Main Outcome Measures weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion measured with the weight-bearing lunge. Measurements were obtained prior to intervention, immediately after intervention, and ten minutes, 24 hours and 48 hours postintervention. Results There was a significant effect x time (F4,192=20.65; P<.001) and a significant time x group interactions (F8,192=6.34; P<.001). Post hoc analysis showed a significant increase of ankle dorsiflexion in both WB-MWM and HVLA groups with respect to the placebo group with no differences between both active treatment groups. Conclusion A single application of WB-MWM or HLVA manual technique improves ankle dorsiflexion in people with CAI, and the effects persist for at least two days. Both techniques have similar effectiveness for improving ankle dorsiflexion although WB-MWM demonstrated greater effect sizes.
    Physical Therapy in Sport 02/2015; 16:10-15. DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.02.001 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States. In 2011, nearly 1 million adolescent athletes were members of basketball teams at over 18,000 US high schools.23 Ankle injuries are the most common musculoskeletal injury sustained in high school basketball2 (US Consumers Product Safety Commission, Directorate of Economic Analysis, written communication, September 7, 2012) and impose severe monetary consequences on the US health care system with an estimated $2 billion in total costs spent to treat these injuries in 2010.24 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings.Objective:To determine high school basketball coaches’ utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP).Study Design:Cross-sectional survey.Methods:The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coaches in Wisconsin. Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine if the injury prevention strategies utilized differed according to school size, sex of the team, years of coaching experience, and the coach’s education level.Results:Four hundred eighty (55%) coaches from 299 (74%) high schools completed the survey. Thirty-seven percent of the coaches encouraged or required their players to use PAB. School enrollment of the coaches’ teams did not affect their stance on the use of PAB (P = 0.30), neither did the sex of the team (P = 0.16), years coaching (P = 0.09), nor the coach’s education (P = 0.49). Fifty percent (n = 242) of the coaches indicated they do not utilize an AIEPP, with no difference based on school enrollment (P = 0.47), team sex (P = 0.41), years coaching (P = 0.78), or the education level (P = 0.44). Barriers to utilization of AIEPP included a lack of time, awareness, and expertise. Coaches preferred an AIEPP that was specific to basketball, combined injury prevention and performance enhancement components, was performed 2 to 3 days per week, and lasted 5 to 15 minutes.Conclusion:Less than half of the coaches encouraged use of PAB, and half did not utilize an AIEPP. Coaches had specific preferences for the type of AIEPP they would implement.Clinical Relevance:Sports medicine providers should promote ankle injury prevention strategies but need to address why prevention strategies may not be utilized in high school basketball settings.
    Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 09/2013; 5(5):410-416. DOI:10.1177/1941738113491072
  • Source
    • "Ankle sprain is the most common trauma in sports, and an osteochondral lesion occurs, in up to 50% of an acute ankle trauma [1] [2]. Every day 1 out of 10000 people undergoes to an ankle injury, and in sports practice, this incidence becomes 5,23 out of 10000 [3] [4] [5]. The incidence of these lesions is more frequent in male (70%), with an average age ranging between 20 and 30 years, and is bilateral in 10% of cases [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction. We evaluate the midterm results of thirty patients who underwent autologous chondrocytes implantation for talus osteochondral lesions treatment. Materials and Methods. From 2002 to 2009, 30 ankles with a mean lesion size of 2,36 cm(2) were treated. We evaluated patients using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery and Coughlin score, Van Dijk scale, recovering time, and Musculoskeletal Outcomes Data Evaluation and Management System. Results. The mean AOFAS score varied from 36.9 to 83.9 at follow-up. Average of Van Dijk scale was 141.1. Coughlin score was excellent/good in 24 patients. MOCART score varied from 6.3 to 3.8. Discussion. This matrix is easy to handle conformable to the lesion and apply by arthroscopy. No correlation between MRI imaging and clinical results is found. Conclusions. Our results, compared with those reported in literature with other surgical procedures, show no superiority evidence for our technique compared to the others regarding the size of the lesions.
    04/2012; 2012:942174. DOI:10.1155/2012/942174
Show more