Dietary intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese adults.

Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan. <>
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.05). 02/2008; 24(2):140-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2007.10.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although a favorable effect of dietary folate and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on depression is suggested from epidemiologic studies in Western countries, evidence from non-Western populations is lacking. We examined cross-sectional associations between the intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 PUFAs and depressive symptoms in Japanese adults.
Subjects were 309 Japanese men and 208 Japanese women 21-67 y of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score > or =16. Adjustment was made for age, body mass index, work place, marital status, occupational physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, and job stress score.
The prevalences of depressive symptoms were 36% for men and 37% for women. Folate intake showed a statistically significant, inverse, and linear association with depressive symptoms in men but not in women. The multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms for men in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of folate intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.38-1.63), 0.57 (0.27-1.18), and 0.50 (0.23-1.06), respectively (P for trend = 0.045). No statistically significant linear association was observed for the intake of riboflavin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, total omega-3 PUFAs, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in either sex.
Higher dietary intake of folate was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese men but not women.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40-79 years were analyzed for 25(OH)D, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OH)D concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01) but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OH)D concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OH)D concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.
    Nutrients 01/2015; 7(1):91-102. DOI:10.3390/nu7010091 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serum cholesterol, both total and lipoprotein fractions, has been associated with mid- and late-life depression. Using longitudinal data on a large and ethnically diverse sample of urban adults, the associations of serum lipid profile measured by high or low total cholesterol (TC; >200 mg dl(-1); <160 mg dl(-1)) and by atherogenic indices, namely high total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol relative to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with change in total and domain-specific depressive symptoms over time were examined. Findings were compared by sex. (Hypothesis 1) In addition, baseline depressive symptoms as predictors for longitudinal change in lipid profile trajectory were tested. (Hypothesis 2) Mixed-effects regression analyses stratified by sex was used. Sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (Men: n=826 ; n'=1319; Women: n=1099 ; n'=1817); Hypothesis 2 (Men: n=738; n'=1230; Women: n=964; n'=1678). As hypothesized, a higher level of atherogenic indices was linked to faster increase in depressive symptom scores, particularly depressed affect and interpersonal problems, though this relationship was found only among women. Among men a U-shaped relationship between baseline TC and longitudinal increase in somatic complaints and a direct link between low TC and longitudinal putative improvement in positive affect was found. On excluding statin users among women, low TC was associated with slower increase in depressed affect over time, whereas high TC was associated with faster increase in interpersonal problems. In summary, atherogenic indices were directly linked to faster increase in depressive symptoms among women only. More studies are needed to explain these sex-specific associations.
    Translational Psychiatry 03/2015; 5(3):e518. DOI:10.1038/tp.2015.4 · 4.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race, and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30 to 64 years at baseline (mean [standard deviation] = 47.5 [9.3]) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study, Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hour recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E per 1000 kcal. Among key findings, 1 standard deviation (∼2.02 mg/1000 kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall (β = +0.64 [0.19], p = .001), and better language/verbal fluency performance (β = +0.53 [0.16], p = .001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β = +0.68 [0.21], p = .001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated = 13%-16%). In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000129 · 4.09 Impact Factor